The Greek that is often translated as “ruler” in English has the option of various terms in Luang with different shades of meaning.

For Acts 16:22 and 17:6, maktorna lodna-hairi (“one who holds the rod and the flag”). “The focus of this term is on national or government authorities.”

For Mark 10:42, makkukma-kto’ma (“the one who pinches you”). “An unjust ruler.”

For Acts 4:26, maktorna-makrautu (“one who holds — one who scratches”). “The focus of this term is on the manpower a ruler controls, such as a large army.”

For Acts 5:31, maktoranreria krita o’tani-hairi wuwannu (“one who holds the octopus’s head – the flag’s top”). “This term refers to a ruler of the highest level. This is what God has raised up Jesus to be. The word ‘octopus’ in this natural doublet contains the idea of supreme control. An octopus has so many arms it can be in control of everything at the same time.”

Source: Kathy Taber in Notes on Translation 1/1999, p. 9-16.