complete verse (James 4:12)

Following are a number of back-translations of James 4:12:

  • Uma: “For only one is worthy to give laws to mankind and to be the Judge/Decider. He is God, who has authority to punish us or free us from punishment. So we, who are we that we dare to criticize our companion!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “God is the one who gave the law, there is no one else, and he is the judge. He is the only one who can save and can destroy. Therefore we (dual) have no authority to say that our (dual) companion is at fault.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “There is only one source of the law and that is God, and there is only one also who has the authority to investigate the behaviour of mankind, and that is also God. He is the one who punishes, and he is also the one who frees from punishment. But as for us (incl.) by contrast, we have no authority to decide who will be freed from punishment.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “God and no-other is who gave us the law and he alone has-authority to judge us. Neither is there another who is able to save and to punish us. If that is so, we people definitely have no authority to judge our fellow by saying that he is bad.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “For the truth is, God alone is where the law comes from and he alone is possible/acceptable as Judge. Because only he has authority to save/free or exterminate. But as for you(s), who are you(s) to pass judgment on your (s) fellowman?” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “But only God it is who gave the law and it is he who is the judge. He is the one who says which person will be saved or will go to punishment. But you, what right have you to judge the conduct of other people?” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)