complete verse (Ephesians 4:18)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ephesians 4:18:

  • Uma: “Their hearts are dark. They do not have the life that is from God, because they do not know the true teaching that is from God. They don’t know it, because of their hard hearts.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “It is as if their minds/thinking are blank/void. They don’t have everlasting life from God because they do not know God and their livers are hard (idiom for unteachable, rebellious people).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “They have no idea about the true way and they do not have life which God has given, since they have been made ignorant because of the hardness of their breath (because of their stubborness).” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because they are stubborn, (lit. their minds are hard), they don’t-want to know/find-out concerning God, so their minds are still dark and the life that God gives is not in them.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Their perception/understanding is really dark. In their stubborness (lit. hardness of their heads) they have absolutely no knowledge of the truth. It’s clear that they do not have the life which God gives.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Their minds are shut up, they do not know the new life which God gives. Because their minds are very tough. They do not allow that they be told how to know God, therefore they do not know.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)