Holy Spirit fell upon them

The Greek that is translated as “(the) Holy Spirit fell upon (them)” in English is translated in Chol as “the Holy Spirit was given in their hearts.”

Wilbur Aulie (in The Bible Translator 1957, p. 109ff.) explains: “Anthromorphisms may be easily misunderstood by Chol readers. The expression ‘the Holy Spirit fell on them’ is understood by some as referring to a bodily fall of the Spirit. Because of the literal-minded reader it was rendered: ‘The Holy Spirit was given in their hearts’. This change was not made without misgivings, however, for as someone else has observed, there is always an element of uncertainty in exegesis.”

the exact imprint of God’s very being

The Greek that is translated as “the exact imprint of God’s very being” or similar in English is translated in Chol as “He is the one who reveals Him.”

Wilbur Aulie (in The Bible Translator 1957, p. 109ff.) explains: “The word charaktér in Hebrews 1:3 was the word used for the impression on a coin or seal. Since the nearest Chol term ’picture’ is inadequate, the phrase ‘the very image of His substance’ was translated: ‘He is the one who reveals Him’.”

anoint (chrió)

The Greek chrió that is translated as “anoint” in English is translated in Chol as “choose.”

Wilbur Aulie (in The Bible Translator 1957, p. 109ff.) explains: “Another illustration of translating a figure in a non-figurative manner is the treatment of chrió ‘anoint’. In Luke 4:18, Acts 4:27 and 10:38, and in 2 Corinthians 1:21 it is metaphorical of consecration to office by God. We translated the metaphor ‘choose’.”

complete verse (John 1:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:5:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “That one who gives understanding to the minds of men, he was like a light that shines where it is dark. But the one who walks where it is dark (the devil) couldn’t overcome him.”
  • Ojitlán Chinantec: “For people are in the evil way, as if to say, they are in darkness. But he illuminates people. The evil one did not prevail over that one who illuminates people.”
  • Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac: “He is like a light which illuminates where it is dark. And the devil, he is of the darkness but he cannot conquer the light.”
  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “The person who is the word has light for the hearts of mankind. Even though there is very much evil in this world where he arrived, the evil did not shut off his light.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Chol: “The light of the world shows itself in the midst of a very dark world. This very dark world was not able to put out the light.” Wilbur Aulie (in The Bible Translator 1957, p. 109ff.) explains the use of “put out the light” (dlick here to display)

    “The problem of multiple meanings is often involved in the rendering of figures. Some hold that Greek katelaben in John 1:5 means both ‘to grasp with the mind’ (i.e., ‘to comprehend’) and ‘to grasp with the hand’ (i.e., to overcome’). Many translators are obliged to make a choice here. In Chol there is no choice, since the darkness cannot comprehend, even metaphorically speaking. It was therefore rendered: ‘The darkness did not put out the light’.”

  • Uma: “That light shone/shines in the darkness, and the darkness was/is not able to kill it/him” (NOTE: The verb “kill” can be used of putting out a light or fire)

cup

The Greek that is translated as “cup” in English is translated in Chol as vaso i yejtal bʌ wocol: “glass which is the picture of affliction.”

Wilbur Aulie (in The Bible Translator 1957, p. 109ff.) explains: “Whatever the precise meaning of ‘cup’ may be in these verses may never be agreed upon, but in the Septuagint it is used metaphorically of adversity and divine punishment. In these verses we used a Spanish borrowing vaso ‘glass’ and added the explanatory phrase, ‘which is the picture of wocol‘. Wocol has a rather wide range of meaning, including affliction, trial, punishment, and retribution. The term vaso was preferred to copa, which is regularly used by Spanish-speaking Christians, since Chol Christians understand copa to be a small glass of intoxicating drink.”

See also drink the cup I drink / be baptized with the baptism I am baptized with.