complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

gave up his spirit

The Greek that is often translated as “he gave up his spirit” in English is translated in a variety of ways:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “And then he died”
  • Aguaruna: “His breath went out”
  • Navajo: “He gave back his spirit”
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “He breathed his last”
  • Chol: “He caused his spirit to leave him”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “He sent away his life breath” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Kankanaey: “He entrusted his spirit to God” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “released his spirit” (lit. caused it to spring away) (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “His spirit/breath broke” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “His breath snapped” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Uma: “‘Why do we look at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the splinter of wood in our own eye, we do not know is there!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (singular) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (singular) fellow, and you (singular) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (singular) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you (sing.) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (John 12:23)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 12:23:

  • Uma: “Yesus said to them: ‘The time has come, for me the Child of Man to be made big.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa answered them, he said, ‘My time has come now. I, the Son of Mankind, I will now soon be honored/made great.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus said, ‘In just a very short time, it will be revealed to everyone my highness over everyone.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Jesus said, ‘The time has already arrived when I who am Child of a Person, I will be praised because-of my death.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus replied, saying, ‘The time has been reached when the praiseworthiness/glory of the One From Heaven Born of Man will be revealed.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Then Jesus said, ‘Soon the Man who came from heaven will be seen to be the greatest.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 22:7)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 22:7:

  • Uma: “When the king heard what had happened, he was very angry. He ordered his soldiers to go kill those killers, and to burn their town.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then the sultan was very angry. He sent his soldiers to kill the people who had killed his servants. He also commanded to burn their town.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then the king became very angry. He sent his soldiers, and those who had murdered, the soldiers killed them. And they burned up the village of those they killed.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The king was extremely angry when he heard what had happened, and he sent his soldiers to go kill those who had killed his slaves, and to burn their town.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When that king knew, his anger was extreme. He sent his soldiers there, wiped out those murderers of their fellowman, and then burned their city.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The king became very angry. He sent soldiers to kill those people who had killed his messengers. The towns in which they lived were burned.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 18:11)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 18:11:

  • Uma: “As for the merchants of the world, they were sad/distressed and they wept over the destruction of Babel, because there was no longer anyone to buy their merchandise.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The people trading in the world wail also and mourn because nobody will buy their goods anymore.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And the seekers of wealth on the earth, they will weep and wail also because of that city, for there is no longer anyone to buy their goods.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Likewise also the businessmen on the earth will weep-for and mourn-for her, because there are no longer any who buy what they are-selling.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well because of what happened to that city, all the merchants here in the world will also cry and grieve because there’s no longer anyone who will buy the merchandise they are selling.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “All the merchants all over the world will mourn and cry over what the city will pass through. For now there will be no one to buy the loads they sell.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (John 13:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 13:5:

  • Uma: “After that, he took water, he poured it into a basin, he began to wash the feet of his disciples, and he dried them with the sarong that was at his waist.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then he filled water into a basin and washed the feet of his disciples and wiped them with the towel that he had wrapped around him.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And he put some water in a basin, and then he washed the feet of his disciples, and he dried them with the towel.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “After that he put water in a basin and began to wash the feet/lower-legs (henceforth feet) of his disciples wiping-them as-he-did-so with the towel that he had wrapped-around-his-waist.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And then he poured water into a bowl. After he’d poured it, he proceeded-gradually to wash the feet/legs of his disciples, and was wiping them with the towel he had wrapped around his waist.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “He poured water into a basin and then washed his learners’ feet. He dried the water with the towel around his waist.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 22:39)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 22:39:

  • Uma: “And the second command that is the same as the first one is: ‘We (incl.) must love our companion like we (incl.) love ourselves.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “And the command next to/following it is equally great, ‘You shall love your companion as you love yourself.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it’s second is this, ‘You must treat your companion well. Think of him as being like your own breath.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The second most-important is similar: ‘You (singular) must love your (singular) fellow like your (singular) manner-of-loving yourself.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The second is, ‘Value your (sing.) fellowman just like your valuing of your own body.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The second word which God commands and is important for people to do is the word which says: ‘Love your fellowman like you would want to be loved,’ says the word.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 19:19)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 19:19:

  • Uma: “After that, I saw the evil animal and the kings of the world with the soldiers that were with them, they gathered in order to wage war against the Rider of the white horse, also with his soldiers.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then I saw the creature and the kings of the earth and their soldiers all gather to fight the one riding on the white horse and his soldiers from heaven.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Then I saw the fearful beast and the kings on the earth accompanied by all their many soldiers. They gathered together to fight against the one riding on the white horse and against his soldiers from heaven.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “After-that I saw that the fearsome animal and the rulers on the earth and their soldiers were gathered-together to go make-war-against the rider on the white horse and his soldiers.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And then I saw next that monster/man-eating-animal. His companions were the kings here under the heavens and their soldiers. For they were going to fight against that one riding on that white horse and his companions.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “I saw then the terrible animal with all these rulers from all over the world, all with their armies. They had gathered in order to make war with the horseman who was on the horse with all his army.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (John 13:37)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 13:37:

  • Uma: “Petrus said again: ‘Why will I not be able to follow you (sing.) now, Lord? I would even die because of my following you (sing.)!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Petros said to him, ‘Sir, why can I not follow you now? I submit/surrender even if I am killed, if it is because of you.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Peter said to him again, ‘Why can’t I accompany you now? I’ll go with you even if I have to allow myself to be killed because of you.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Pedro then said, ‘Lord, why perhaps can-I not -follow now? Because here-now I am prepared to die for you (singular).'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘Lord/Chief, why won’t I be able to go along with you now?’ next question of Pedro. ‘It’s true, I will give my life/breath because of you!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Peter said, ‘Lord. Why do you say that I can’t follow you now? I will lay down my life for you.'” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 23:25)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 23:25:

  • Uma: “‘Disaster on you, you religious teachers and Parisi people! You are just good on the outside! You are like people who clean cups and plates only on the outside, but on the inside they are still dirty. Religious customs that are only visible on the outside you really follow. But in your hears you are greedy/gluttonous and desire other peoples’ things.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘You are to be pitied teachers of the religious law and Pariseo because God will punish you. You only pretend to follow God. You wash the cups and the plates but what is in it/them is unclean (ritually) because you got that food because of your deceiving and your greed.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Pity you, teachers of the law and you Pharisees, because your faith in God is a lie. You carefully observe your own customs, but in your minds and in your breath there is greediness and wickedness. You are like a cup or a dish which is cleaned on the outside but is filthy on the inside.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Pitiful are you teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You are like a person who washes only the outside (lit. trunk/body) of a cup and the back of a plate, because you are showing good behavior/character to the people, but your mind/thoughts, it is full of greed and plans to cheat your fellows.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Really extremely hard is being reserved for you, you explainers of law and Pariseo who pretend to believe/obey God. You clean your cups and plates according to the law, but what you put into them is disgusting. For what you use to get that food of yours is wholly gotten-by-overcharging and keeping-more-than-one’s share.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Listen, you teachers of the law and Pharisees, how great is the suffering you will have, for it is not true that you are good people. Because just on the outside it appears that you are good people, yet in your hearts you are thieves and just what other people have is what you set your hearts on getting.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)