complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

gave up his spirit

The Greek that is often translated as “he gave up his spirit” in English is translated in a variety of ways:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “And then he died”
  • Aguaruna: “His breath went out”
  • Navajo: “He gave back his spirit”
  • Inupiaq: “He breathed his last”
  • Chol: “He caused his spirit to leave him”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “He sent away his life breath” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Kankanaey: “He entrusted his spirit to God” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “released his spirit” (lit. caused it to spring away) (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “His spirit/breath broke” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “His breath snapped” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Uma: “‘Why do we look at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the splinter of wood in our own eye, we do not know is there!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (singular) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (singular) fellow, and you (singular) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (singular) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you(s) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Mark 6:26)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 6:26:

  • Uma: “Hearing that request, the King’s heart was so regretful. But he could no longer withdraw his words to the young woman, for he had sworn and the guests had heard.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The king really regretted, but he did not want to go-back-on (dapat) his word because he had sworn in the presence of his visitors.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And then Herod was very sad, but because his promise was very strong which was heard also by the people who had come to the feast, he would lose face if he did not fulfill his promise.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Herod was extremely sad (lit. thoughts hurt) when he heard that, but because he had sworn in-front-of the many he-had-invited, he was ashamed not to fulfill what he had-promised to her.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When the king heard, he was really grieved. But because of his oath in the hearing of those he had invited, he didn’t refuse that girl.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Ephesians 1:12)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ephesians 1:12:

  • Uma: “That is why it is very fitting that God be praised and made big because of the bigness of his love to us (excl.) the Yahudi people , because we are the ones who first hoped in Kristus.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “We (excl.) were the first to expect/hope for/in Christ. That is the reason why we (excl.) were chosen, so that we (excl.) should praise the love and mercy of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Everything that God is doing, it is the fulfillment of His purpose and His desire. And because it was His purpose, He chose us (excl.) the Jewish believers, so that we might become His subjects who would become one with Christ. This was His purpose that He decided on long ago before anything was created. And as for us, the Jews who were the first to believe in Christ, the reason He chose us is because it was His desire that by means of us, He who is very powerful, would be praised.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “in order that his godhood would be praised because of us (excl.) who preceded to trust in Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And this is his determined-plan, that we live so as to bring praise to his praiseworthiness/glory, we (excl.) who were first to concentrate our hope in Cristo that we would be given this good in the future,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Because of that, may God be praised by all those who now see the good he did for us, we who first believed that Christ would save us.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Acts 8:13)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 8:13:

  • Uma: “From there, Simon also believed and he was baptized. After he was baptized, he continually followed Filipus, because he was surprised to see the surprising signs and big happenings that happened.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Even Simon believed also. And after he was baptized, he always accompanied Pilip. He was greatly amazed when he saw the works of power and of wonder done by Pilip.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And after Simon was baptized, he went around with Philip and was greatly surprised when he saw the signs and the miracles that Philip was doing.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Even Simon, he also believed and was baptized. And afterwards he went-along-with Felipe while-simultaneously he was amazed at the amazing signs and miracles that he was doing.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Even Simon, he also believed. After he was baptized, he was always going about with Felipe because he was amazed by the signs which were amazing things which he was seeing Felipe being able to do.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Mark 7:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 7:2:

  • Uma: “They saw several of Yesus’ followers eating without washing their hands first according to the custom of the Yahudi religion.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “They saw the disciples of Isa eating. They (thought it was) defiling because Isa’s disciples ate but they had not washed their hands causing-them-to-be-clean following the custom and teaching of the Pariseo.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “They saw that some of Jesus’ disciples were transgressing in the doctrine of the Pharisees for they were eating without washing their hands.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “They saw some of Jesus’ disciples eating with still dirty hands, meaning to say, they had not followed the right way of washing-hands that the Pharisees commanded.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “They saw that as for some of the disciples of Jesus, they would eat without washing their hands according to their handed-down teaching which was said to make clean in the sight of God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Ephesians 2:21)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ephesians 2:21:

  • Uma: “We who are connected to Yesus are like lumber and other stuff that is arranged on top of a strong foundation stone, in order to build a holy house that is worthy to be dwelt-in by the Lord God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Figuratively, the materials/parts of the house are joined together by Almasi and the house becomes bigger until finally it becomes a prayer-house worthy for God to live in.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “By means of Christ, the building of this house is made strong, and this is becoming a house of the Lord where He is worshipped.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He is of course the one who supports/holds all the parts of the temple so that its construction is firm/stable. And due to your being joined to him, you are counted-in with all believers whom God is using-to-construct a holy temple in which he stays by-means-of his Spirit.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Cristo is the one to whom all these building-materials are attached. They are really fixed-on well and, because of their being united/tied-together with the Lord, this building continues to grow, now becoming an elaborate worshipping-place.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “There where a house is being built to be a church, there the stone work is begun, there accompany many stones to make up the stone wall for the church of God. You are the stones which make up the wall of the church. Concerning Christ, he is the stone which began the wall. The ones who are his representatives and those who are spokesmen for God are the stones which first went to build the house. And now, because of Christ, the people who are not Jews now accompany all those who believe in Christ. Because with all of us the Holy Spirit now walks.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Acts 9:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of Acts 9:5:

  • Uma: “Saulus said: ‘Who are you(s), Lord?’ The speaker answered: ‘I am Yesus, whom you(s) are persecuting.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Saul answered, he said, ‘Who are you, Sir?’ ‘I am Isa,’ the voice said, ‘I am the one you are persecuting.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “‘Who are you?’ (No natural equivalent for Lord or Sir in this context.) And he answered, ‘I am Jesus, the one whom you are ill treating.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Who are you (singular) Lord?’ said Saulo. ‘I am Jesus whom you (singular) are persecuting.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘Oh, who are you, Master?’ said Saulo.’Jesus is who I am. I really am the one whom you are persecuting,’ said the reply to him.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Mark 7:34)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 7:34:

  • Uma: “After that, he look-up to the sky, sighed [lit., pulled his breath], and said: ‘Open!’ (In the Yahudi language, it sounds like this: ‘Efata!’)” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then Isa looked up to the sky and took a deep breath and he said to the man, ‘Eppata.’ That means, ‘Open (pl.)'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus looked up to the sky and breathed deeply, and he said, ‘Ipata,’ which is to say, ‘Be opened!'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then he looked-up to heaven sighing and he said in their language, ‘Eppata,’ its meaning being: ‘(You (singular)) be opened.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus looked up to heaven/sky and sighed (lit. took a deep breath) through the big-size of his pity. And then he said to that person, ‘Effrata!’ which means, ‘Be-opened!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Ephesians 4:10)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ephesians 4:10:

  • Uma: “That Kristus who descended, he is also just the one who ascended to the point that he reached the seat that is higher than all that is in the sky, in order that he become the one who controls all things.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Na, the one who came here to earth, he is also the one who was lifted up again going up to beyond the sky so that wherever in the entire world/universe, he would also be there/present.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And that one who came down to earth is Christ; He is also the one who is raised up to Heaven, and even there on the other side of the very highest Heaven. The reason He did this was so that it might be possible that He is there everywhere in all of creation.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “And the one who descended from heaven, he is the very one who rose-up there again so that he would be the one who would be in even any place to rule all that exists.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “And when he descended in that he came here to the world, he is also the one who went up to the top-level of heaven so that he could give what would complete all.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Christ himself left from heaven and arrived here on earth. And then he went above the highest skies in order that it be seen that everywhere he rules.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)