gave up his spirit

The Greek that is often translated as “he gave up his spirit” in English is translated in a variety of ways:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “And then he died”
  • Aguaruna: “His breath went out”
  • Navajo: “He gave back his spirit”
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “He breathed his last”
  • Chol: “He caused his spirit to leave him”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “He sent away his life breath” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Kankanaey: “He entrusted his spirit to God” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “released his spirit” (lit. caused it to spring away) (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “His spirit/breath broke” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “His breath snapped” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Indonesian: “His breath was cut off” (Common Language Translation) (Source: Daniel Arichea in The Bible Translator 1983, p. 209ff.)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

Other translation for the wind include “fierce wind” (Teutila Cuicatec), “wind with very much power” Eastern Highland Otomi), “violent wind” (Lalana Chinantec), or “big wind” (Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac). (Source: Viola Waterhouse in Notes on Translation August 1966, p. 86ff.)

scorpion

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “scorpion” in English is translated in North Tanna as “centipedes” (Luke 10:19) or “millipede” (Luke 11:12) (source: Ross McKerras).

The literal translation in Nyongar is nirnt-daalang or “tail-tongue” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang) and in Uma it is translated as “stinging-caterpillar” (Source: Uma Back Translation).

centurion

The Greek that is translated as “centurion” in English is translated in Nyongar as “boss of the Roman soldiers (lit.: ‘men of fighting’)” (source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang), in Uma as “Roman army warchief” (source: Uma Back Translation), in Western Bukidnon Manobo as “a person who was not a Jew, the captain of a hundred soldiers” (source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation), and in Mairasi “leader of Roman warriors” (source: Enggavoter 2004).

humble (verb)

The Greek that is translated as “humbled” in English is rendered in Gumuz as “become small” (source Loren Bliese) and in Uma as “make hearts low” (“proud,” the opposite is translated as proud “make hearts high” (source: Uma Back Translation).

manure

The Greek that is translated as “manure” or “fertilizer” in English is translated in Uma as “fat land” (source: Uma Back Translation) and in Yakan as “for making fat the soil” (source: Yakan Back Translation).

complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Nyongar: “Why do you see the speck in your brother’s eye, but you do not see the log in your own eye?” (Source: Warda-Kwabba Luke-Ang)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (sing.) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (sing.) fellow, and you (sing.) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (sing.) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you (sing.) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 18:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 18:2:

  • Uma: “Yesus called a small child, stood him in their midst,” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then Isa told a child to come to them and stood him in the middle of them.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus called a child, and he placed it in the middle of his disciples.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “So then Jesus called a child and had-him-stand in the middle of them.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Before Jesus replied, what he did was, he called a child and caused him to stand in their presence.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Jesus called a boy who stood there and put him standing in the midst of them.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Ephesians 6:20)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ephesians 6:20:

  • Uma: “The Lord Yesus lifted me to become his messenger/apostle, so that I carry the Good News, to the point that here I am in prison. So, pray for me that I will be brave to speak the Good News as is appropriate.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “I have been commissioned by Almasi to proclaim the good news, even though now I am here in prison. Ask/pray to God that I may be bold to proclaim because this is the work God gave me to do.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “The reason I became a servant of God was so that I might preach this Good News. And also because of this preaching of mine I have become a prisoner. Therefore, brothers, pray for me so that I won’t be afraid to preach because this is the job that God has given me to do.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because Cristo sent me as his representative (lit. bodyhood) in order that I would make-known this good news, and that’s the reason I am imprisoned today. So be-praying-for me so that I would-become-brave to preach-it, because that’s the right-thing that I ought to do.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because through the teaching of this Good News, God entrusted me with my job/responsibility, and that is how I came to be chained like this here in prison. Therefore, it’s necessary that you pray that I can indeed teach boldly according to what I must do.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “God appointed me to be a representative to tell this good news. And now because I speak this word I am in prison. Therefore pray to God for me in order that I will be able to be strengthened to speak well the word as it is my duty to do so.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (John 10:4)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 10:4:

  • Uma: “When he has led them all outside, he walks ahead of his sheep, and his sheep follow him, because they know how to recognize his voice.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When they are outside, he goes ahead and the sheep follow after him because they recognise his voice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when the one who cares causes his own sheep to go out, he goes ahead and they will follow him because they are used to his voice.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When they all go-out then, he leads them, and he is the one they follow, because they know his voice.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When he has brought out all which are his, he then is the one there in front and the sheep follow behind him, because they recognize his voice.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When he has brought out all his sheep, he goes ahead of his sheep. The sheep follow him because they know his voice.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Matthew 18:34)

Following are a number of back-translations of Matthew 18:34:

  • Uma: “No longer kidding the anger of the king. He put that slave whose behavior was evil into prison until his debt was paid finished/completely.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The sultan was very angry and he commanded that servant to be put in prison to be punished as long as he was not able to pay all his debt.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “The king was very angry, and he had this man put in prison to punish him as long as he could not pay all that he owed.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “And due-to the extreme anger of the king, he sentenced that official to be hardshipped in prison until he paid all his debt.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Without anything further, through the greatness of the anger of that king, he imprisoned him until he could pay all that debt of his.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The boss was really angry. He ordered them to take the worker to jail until he would pay the money that he owed.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)