complete verse (Matt. 7:3 / Luke 6:41), speck vs. log

The Greek that is translated in English as “Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” or similar is translated in Uma with an existing figure of speech: “Why do we stare at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the piece of wood that is in our own eye we don’t know it’s there!” (Source: Kroneman 2004, p. 501)

In Una, it had to be translated with a more explicit translation because “a more literal and shorter version of this verse had led to major misunderstanding or zero understanding.” It’s back-translation says: “You (pl.) are doing very evil things, but you think, ‘We do not do evil things’. But, regarding other people who do not do very evil things, you think, ‘They are doing evil things, for shame’. As for the very big thorn that broke off and entered your eyes, you think, ‘There is no big thorn that entered my eye’, but with regard to the very small piece of wood dust that might have entered someone else’s eye, why would you say, ‘A piece of wood dust has entered his eye?’ That is not appropriate.” (Source: Dick Kronemann)

In Uripiv it is translated as “How is it you see the fowl dropping stuck on the bottom of your brother’s foot, but you can’t see the cow-pat you have stood on? … You could stand on his foot by mistake and make it dirtier!” (Ross McKerras remarked about this translation: “Our village father laughed when he heard this, which was the right reaction.”)

Other back-translations include:

  • Uma: “‘Why do we look at the sleep in another’s eye, yet the splinter of wood in our own eye, we do not know is there!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “You who puts down his companion,’ said Isa, ‘why do you notice a speck (lit. of sawdust) in the eye of your companion but you, the tree trunk in your own eye you don’t notice.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And again Jesus spoke, ‘You who are always rebuking your companions, why do you rebuke the sin of your companion which is just like a speck that got into his eye. But you — you have a sin which is as big as a log, which has blinded your eye, and you pay no attention to it.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “‘Why do you (singular) notice the small bit-of-eye-discharge (as when waking up) in the eye of your (singular) fellow, and you (singular) don’t notice the large bit-of-eye-discharge in your (singular) eye?” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “I don’t know why, when someone else has a foreign-body-in-the-eye which is only dust, that is what you(s) keep looking for. But when your own foreign-body-in-the-eye is wedged across your eye (implies too big to go in), you just leave it alone.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (John 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of John 1:17:

  • Yatzachi Zapotec: “Moses taught the ancestors of us Israelites the law of God, but Jesus Christ came to teach that God loves mankind, and he teaches us all the true words of God.”
  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “The law about the things of God, the one who gave it was Moses. But the love which was to us and the truth came into being because of Jesus Christ.”
  • Umiray Dumaget Agta: “Even though Moses was caused to speak the rules of God, Jesus Christ was the one appointed to show mercy and to declare the truth.”
  • Guerrero Amuzgo: “. . . but Jesus Christ is the source of all favor and of the words that are true.”
  • Chol: “Jesus Christ came and gave us the goodness of his heart and truth.”
  • Tenango Otomi: “By means of Moses the law of God is known. But by means of Jesus Christ the love of God and the true word are known.” (Source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Uma: “From the prophet Musa we received the Law of the Lord God. But [it is] from Yesus Kristus that we really know God, and his grace to us.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The law of God was given/sent to mankind by Musa but God’s love and the truth are given to mankind by Isa Almasi, he is the one called the Word of God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And by means of Moses, God brought down to earth the laws. But by means of Jesus, God brought down to earth his love/grace for us and the true doctrine.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because God made-known his law through Moses, but his mercy/kindness and the truth concerning him, he made-known to us through Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because God gave his laws to Moises which he was commanding us, but that grace/mercy of his and truth concerning himself, he caused us to comprehend through Jesu-Cristo.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

gave up his spirit

The Greek that is often translated as “he gave up his spirit” in English is translated in a variety of ways:

  • Huehuetla Tepehua: “And then he died”
  • Aguaruna: “His breath went out”
  • Navajo: “He gave back his spirit”
  • North Alaskan Inupiatun: “He breathed his last”
  • Chol: “He caused his spirit to leave him”
  • Lalana Chinantec: “He sent away his life breath” (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)
  • Kankanaey: “He entrusted his spirit to God” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “released his spirit” (lit. caused it to spring away) (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “His spirit/breath broke” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “His breath snapped” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

northeaster

The Greek that is translated as “But soon a violent wind, called the northeaster (or: Euroclydon), rushed down from Crete” or similar in English is translated in a lot of different ways:

  • Upper Guinea Crioulo: “A great storm rose up on the side of the island that came against them.” (“The point wasn’t the name of the wind [nor’easter]. All of these nautical terms can be difficult for people who aren’t seafaring. The point wasn’t so much which cardinal direction the wind was coming from. The point was that the wind was coming from a direction that made it impossible for them to go in the direction they wanted to go. This is further explained in the following verse.”) (Source: David Frank)
  • Caluyanun: “Not long-afterward, the wind from the aminhan/northeast got-strong, which was from the land-area of the island of Crete.” (“’Aminhan’ is the common direction of the wind during half the year.”) (Source: Kermit Titrud)
  • Northern Emberá: “But soon a bad wind called the Euroclidon blew forcefully from the right hand.” (“When we have to specify north and south we use left hand and right hand, respectively. But in Acts 27:14, the Northeaster wind comes from the right, hitting the right side of the ship as they headed west.”) (Source: Chaz Mortensen)
  • Amele: “But shortly a strong wind called Jawalti blowing from the direction of the sun coming up to the left came up.” (“East is cam tobec isec ‘the direction the sun comes up’ and west is cam tonec/nec isec ‘the direction the sun goes/comes down.’ ‘Jawalti’ is a local name for the wind that blows down from the north coast of Madang. ‘Sea corner’ is the Amele term for ‘harbour‘”) (Source: John Roberts)
  • Mairasi: “But after not a very long time at all already a very big wind blew from behind us. In Greek that wind is called ‘Eurokulon’ from over there in the north and east. It blew down from that island itself.” (Source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Kankanaey: “But it wasn’t long, a swift wind arrived from the upper-part of Creta.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it wasn’t a long time from then, we were typhooned. A very strong wind arrived which was called Abagat. The wind came from the direction of the land.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But before we had been sailing for long, suddenly/unexpectedly the wind changed again to an off-shore wind of tremendous strength. Euraclidon was what the people from there called that wind.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Uma: “But in fact not long after that, a big wind came from the land, a wind called Sea Storm.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But not long after, a very strong wind blew from the coast.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)

See also cardinal directions / left and right and cardinal directions (north, south, east, west).

complete verse (Luke 8:35)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 8:35:

  • Uma: “That is why the townspeople came wanting to see what had happened. When they arrived at Yesus, they saw the person who was usually possessed by demons, sitting quietly beside Yesus. He was dressed/clothed and his mind was clear. They were afraid.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Then the people went there to look what had happened. When they came there to Isa, they saw the person who had been demon possessed sitting there beside Isa’s feet. He was dressed and his mind was good (he was sane). Then they were afraid.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Now the people who heard this news, they went out to Jesus because they wanted to see. And they saw there the person who was cured, who was sitting before Jesus, and he had clothes on and his thinking was now proper. And because of that, they were very much surprised.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “So the many-people, they went to see what had happened. When they arrived then where plural Jesus were, they found the man whom the evil-spirits had left sitting in front of Jesus clothed and with his mind made-good, so they all become afraid.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When the people knew, they went there so that they would see the truth/proof of what was being told. On their coming to Jesus, they saw that sitting now beside him was that person from whom the evil spirits had been driven out. He was dressed now and his mind was clear/alert. That crowd was reached by fear.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 4:13)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 4:13:

  • Uma: “Long ago God promised to Abraham and to his descendants that he would give them the world. God’s purpose was that Abraham and his descendants receive what he promised because they believed, and from their belief they would become straight in his sight. It is not people who follow the Lord’s Law who get what God has promised.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “In old times God promised to Ibrahim that he would give him and his descendants the whole world and finally it would be theirs. This promise of God was given by him to Ibrahim not because God’s law was followed by Ibrahim but because he believed God and he was forgiven and considered straight by God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “It was a long time ago when God promised Abraham and his descendants that they would be the ones to be in charge of all mankind. The reason this was promised, was not because Abraham obeyed the Law but rather, because Abraham believed God. And because of this belief of his, God considered him to be righteous.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “God promised Abraham and his descendants that they would be the ones who would inherit the world. But the reason God promised that was not Abraham’s obedience to the law but rather it was because he believed and God counted him as righteous.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “God promised a word to Abraham that his descendants would be given the land so that there would come to be their possession all the world. But this land was not given to belong to them because it was said that he had done all that the law says. No, no that. Rather, he upon believing God was cleared of his sins and therefore he was given the land to become his.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 11:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 11:17:

  • Uma: “they said: ‘Oo Lord God, the Lord whose power surpasses all. You(s) were from the beginning and you(s) still are now. We say thank-you to [you] Lord, because you(s) used your (s) very big power, you(s) have begun to rule.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “and they said, ‘O, God, our (excl.) Lord. You are really powerful. You do not change since the beginning of time until now. We (excl.) really thank you because you have shown now your great power and you have begun your rule now on the earth.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “and they said, ‘Our God and our Lord, You control everything. You were God long ago and You are today. We thank You because You have used Your great power, and You have begun to rule on the earth.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “saying, ‘Lord God who is all powerful who existed previously and so also now, we (excl.) thank you (singular), because now you (singular) have shown your (singular) amazing power and you (singular) have begun to rule.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “What they said was, ‘Praiseworthy God who has surpassing supernatural-power, from long ago you already existed, and until today there is no change in you. We(excl.) give thanks because you have shown your unending supernatural-power for you have now begun to reign.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “All together they said: ‘Thank you Lord. You are God who has all power. You live now and you have lived in the past days and you continue to live for the days which are coming. Thank you that now you have begun to rule.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 9:11)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 9:11:

  • Uma: “However, the people knew where they had gone. That is why they followed, following Yesus. When they arrived at Yesus, he received them and taught them teaching what spoke-about the Kingdom of God. And whoever was diseased he healed.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “When the crowds of people knew this, they followed. Isa greeted them and he preached to them about the ruling of God and he healed all the sick ones.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And a crowd of very many people learned that Jesus and company had gone, and they followed. And Jesus welcomed them and he taught them about the rule of God, and he healed also the people there of whatever sickness they had.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But when the many-people found-out that they had gone, they followed them. Then Jesus called them and taught them concerning the ruling of God. He also healed the sick among them.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But well, when the people knew, they indeed followed after him. Jesus received them happily. And then he taught them concerning the kingdom of God, and those who had an illness, he healed.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 5:20)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 5:20:

  • Uma: “As for the Lord’s Law the Musa announced, God’s purpose in giving that Law to man was so that man’s guilt would be obvious/clear, because many their breakings of that Law. But no matter how big the sin of men, the grace [white insides] of God to men is just bigger-and-bigger!” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Before God gave the law, people were already sinning. The law was given by God so that they would know that their sins were becoming more. But even-though the sins of people increased God loved and pitied/had-mercy-on even more the sinful people.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “The reason God gave the Law was so that people might realize increasingly how many are they transgressing against Him and at the time when the transgressions had increased very much, God caused to increase His kindness towards people.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “God gave his law to Moses in order that people’s sins would become increasingly many. But even though sins increased-in-number, God’s grace was still more.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “The law was written in order that even more we should know that we have sin. And now when we know that we have much sin, then all the more we come to know that concerning the grace of God which is given to us, it is overflowing very much.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Revelation 13:12)

Following are a number of back-translations of Revelation 13:12:

  • Uma: “That second animal is a prophet that is sent-as-representative by that first animal earlier. So, all the power/authority of the first animal is exercised [lit., caused-to-walk] by that second animal. All the people who live on the earth he forced to worship that first animal, who had a great wound, but was healed.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “He used the power given to him by the creature whose wound had been healed. He forced all people in the world telling them to worship that first creature.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “This beast, he is the prophet of Satan and he used the power of the first beast who is the one who sent him. He forced all mankind to worship the first beast whose wound which had almost killed him had healed.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He had all the authority of the preceding fearsome animal, and he was using it in serving him. And he forced all people on the earth to worship/praise that-aforementioned preceding-one whose wound that should have killed him had healed.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He was being sent/entrusted by that first monster, that’s why he used the authority and means/ability of that first one. And he forced all people here under the heavens to worship that first animal, who had a wound which even though it would cause death, instead it indeed healed.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “All the power which the first terrible animal had was given to it and first looked on at all it did. This terrible animal who had come out of the earth caused the people all over the world to worship the terrible animal which had come out of the water, that one whose wound had healed.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (Luke 9:43)

Following are a number of back-translations of Luke 9:43:

  • Uma: “All the people were surprised to see that great power of God. While the people were pondering surprised-at all the miracles done by Yesus, he said to his disciples:” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “All the people there wondered very much when they saw the power of God. While the people were still wondering about the works of Isa, Isa said to his disciples,” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And all the people there were very much surprised because of what Jesus had done by means of the great power of God. And while they were still amazed at all of the things that Jesus was doing, he said to his disciples,” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “And all the people were amazed at the power of God. The many-people were still amazed at all Jesus was doing while-meanwhile he said to his disciples,” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “All the people were really amazed at the strength of the supernatural-power of God. Well since the people were amazed by all that which Jesus was doing, he said to his disciples,” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)

complete verse (Romans 7:8)

Following are a number of back-translations of Romans 7:8:

  • Uma: “But when I heard the Lord’s Law that says ‘Don’t desire,’ sin had opportunity to work in my heart with the result that I just desired more-and-more. If for instance there were no Lord’s Law to point out my sin, sin would have no power in my heart.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “After I knew from the law that coveting is not good, then my inborn sinning/old nature moved/stirred that’s why my coveting/greedy desire increased. The meaning of what I am saying here is that if there were no law we (dual) would not know that we (dual) sin.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Sin was already with me, and when the Law taught me what coveteousness was, my coveteousness increased and my sinning also increased. For if there wasn’t a Law for us to break, we would not have known what sin is.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “But since I am a sinner, I increasingly covet because of the law that prohibits coveting. Because if there is no law, neither does sin have any power.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “When we know what is said in the law, it seems that more powerfully we want something that is owned by another. During the time when it was not known what the law says, it did not appear what sin is.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)