justice

The Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Latin that is translated as “justice” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a sign that describes the quality or principle of fairness, righteousness, and impartiality in treating other people. A literal back-translation of the signs are “FOLLOW(God is implied) ACTIONS, DECISIONS JUST-RIGHT”. A more idiomatic back-translation would be: “actions and decisions are right/fitting/just in accordance to God’s will.” The movement in the signs itself helps to indicate that this is a noun, not a verb. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Justice” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

creation

The Greek, and Latin that is translated as “creation” in English is translated in Lisu as ꓟꓵ ꓚꓰꓼ ꓟꓲ ꓚꓰꓼ — my tshe mi tshe, verbatim translated as “place — make — earth — make.” This construction follows a traditional four-couplet construct in oral Lisu poetry that is usually in the form ABAC or ABCB. (Source: Arrington 2020, p. 58)

In American Sign Language it is translated with a sign that signifies creating out of nothing. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Creation” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

Goliath

The term that is transliterated as “Goliath” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a finger pointing to the forehead (a reference to where the stone hit him) followed by the sign for “tall” referring to 1 Samuel 17:49 and 1 Samuel 17:4. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Goliath” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

See also Zacchaeus.

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Goliath .

ark of the covenant

The Hebrew, Greek, and Latin that is sometimes translated as “ark of the covenant” in English (other English options: “pact chest” [translation by John Goldingay, 2018] or “Coffer of the Covenant” [translation by Everett Fox, 1995]) is translated in various ways:

  • Mairasi: Anasi Farjora or “Covenant Place” (source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Uma: “Promise Box” (source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Covenant Chest” (source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Chest of the Agreement” (source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Chest of the Initiated-agreement” (source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Danish Bibelen 2020: kisten med den hellige aftale or “chest with the holy agreement” (source: Ehrensvärd in HIPHIL Novum 8/2023, p. 81ff. )

Following is reverse applique stitching (“mola”) by an unknown Guna artist depicting the ark:

Source: Sacred Art Pilgrim website .

In American Sign Language it is translated with a sign that combines “box” and the wings of the cherubim on top of the ark (see Exod 25:18 and following). (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Ark of the covenant” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

See also cherub and tabernacle (noun).

Hannah

The term that is transliterated as “Hannah” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a modification of the sign for “grace,” referring to the original meaning of the name “Hannah.” (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Hannah” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

See also Anna.

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Hannah .

Potiphar

The term that is transliterated as “Potiphar” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a sign that signifies the letter “P” and “boss.” (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Potiphar” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

Elisha

The name that is transliterated as “Elisha” in English is translated in Finnish Sign Language with the sign signifying “help + prophet.” (Source: Tarja Sandholm)


“Elisha” in Finnish Sign Language (source )

In American Sign Language it is translated with the sign for “bald,” referring to 2 Kings 2:23. This is a sign that was adapted from Kenyan Sign Language. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Elisha” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

In Spanish Sign Language it is translated with with the sign depicting “putting on mantel” referring to 2 Kings 2:13. (Source: Steve Parkhurst)


“Elisha” in Spanish Sign Language, source: Sociedad Bíblica de España

Following is a Russian Orthodox icon of Elisha from the 18th century (found in the Transfiguration Church, Kizhi Monastery, Karelia, Russia).

 
Orthodox Icons are not drawings or creations of imagination. They are in fact writings of things not of this world. Icons can represent our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints. They can also represent the Holy Trinity, Angels, the Heavenly hosts, and even events. Orthodox icons, unlike Western pictures, change the perspective and form of the image so that it is not naturalistic. This is done so that we can look beyond appearances of the world, and instead look to the spiritual truth of the holy person or event. (Source )

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Elisha .

Ishmael

The term that is transliterated as “Ishmael” in English is translated in American Sign Language with the sign for the letter I and the sign signifying “stubborn” (also similar to “donkey”), referring to Genesis 16:12. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Ishmael” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

In Spanish Sign Language it is translated with a sign that depicts shooting bow and arrow, referring to the fact that Ishmael was skilled with his bow (see Genesis 21:20). (Source: Steve Parkhurst)


“Ishmael” in Spanish Sign Language, source: Sociedad Bíblica de España