one and only son, only begotten son, only son

A particularly interesting development in the history of Christianity [related to translation] took place with respect to the Greek term monogenés, literally, ‘only, unique, one of kind.’ It was used of Isaac as the son of Abraham [see Gen. 22:2], though Isaac was not the only son of Abraham, for he had a son Ishmael, and with a later wife Keturah, several sons. But Isaac was the only son of a particular kind, that is to say, the unique son of the promise. The term monogenés was translated into Latin as unigenitus, meaning literally ‘only begotten’ [in English — or likewise traditionally in Chinese: “dúshēng 獨 生,” Italian: “unigenito,” Spanish “unigénito,” or German: “eingeboren”] but in Greek the equivalent of ‘only begotten’ would have two n’s and not just one. Nevertheless, the Latin misinterpretation of monogenés has constituted such a long tradition that any attempt to speak of Jesus as the ‘unique son of God’ rather than the ‘only begotten son’ is often announced as a case of blatant heresy. (Source: Nida 1984, p. 114.)

In Waiwai, the Greek that is translated as “only begotten Son” in English in John 3:16 is translated as cewnan tumumururosa okwe, where the “particle okwe indicates dearness, and it must be included in Waiwai for the expression ‘only begotten Son’ to mean anything like what it means to God or to us as Christians.” (Source: Robert Hawkins (in The Bible Translator 1962, pp. 164ff.)

See also complete verse (John 3:16).

with orders to bring his head

The Greek that is translated “…with orders to bring his head” or similar in English is translated in Waiwai as noro pitho taki ehtati: “She says to go bring his head now.” Robert Hawkins (in The Bible Translator 1962, pp. 164ff.) explains: “The particle ti indicates indirect quotation; with commands or requests it has the effect of laying all the responsibility for the command or request ontp another person. We feel that Herod, if he had been speaking Waiwai, would have thus laid the responsibility for this request on the daughter of Herodias as he regretted the action very much.”

See also John, whom I beheaded and has been raised.

John, whom I beheaded

The Greek that is translated as “John, whom I beheaded” or similar in English is translated in Waiwai as canirma mese onikhato norohamta: “It is evidently John whom I beheaded.” Robert Hawkins (in The Bible Translator 1962, pp. 164ff.) explains: “The particle mese indicates disagreement with another person; apparently Herod was disagreeing with the guesses of other people concerning the identity of Jesus. In the original this is not stated in the text but is implied in the context.”

See also with orders to bring his head and has been raised.

has been raised

The Greek that is translated as “has been raised” or similar in English is translated in Waiwai as pakay taki haramatwahake kopi: “he must have come back to life.” Robert Hawkins (in The Bible Translator 1962, pp. 164ff.) explains: “The particle kopi indicates fear. This thought of fear is not found in the expression itself but is implied by the context and from what we know of Herod’s life and from the rarity of people rising from the dead.”

See also with orders to bring his head and John, whom I beheaded.

walking on the sea (lake)

The Greek that is translated as “walking on the sea (or: lake)” or similar in English is translated in Waiwai as tuna ratari mokyakne kopi, coycoy wara: “He came along the surface of the water, step, step.” Robert Hawkins (in The Bible Translator 1962, pp. 164ff.) explains: “The particle coy (here reduplicated) is an iddeophone meaning ‘to step’ and indicates that Christ was walking over the surface of the water rather than comping to the boat (…) [and] kopi indicates fear, which though not expressed in this verse is expressed in the following verses. Thus we have added to particle here with out, we feel, adding anything to the meaning of the original text.”

See also has been raised.