man / woman

The Hebrew ’ishshah for “woman” and ’ish for “man” is a clear play on words. In English the terms “man” and “woman” naturally simulate that play on words (Moffatt emphasizes this in his 1926 translation by saying “This shall be called Wo-man, for from man was she taken.”)

In the German translations of Luther (all versions) and Menge (publ. 1926), this word play is emulated by creating the new term “Männin” which would be the grammatical feminine form of “Mann” (“man”). The Low German translation by Johannes Jessen (publ. 1937) also uses a newly created term with Mannsfru or “man-woman.” (Source: Jost Zetzsche)

The Chadian Arabic translation does not recreate an alliteration between “woman” and “man” but instead between “woman” and “she was taken out.” (Source: Andy Warren-Rothlin)

Translation: German

Bei dem hebräischen ’ishshah für "Frau" und ’ish für "Mann" handelt es sich um ein Wortspiel. Im Englischen simulieren die gebräuchlichen Begriffe "man" (Mann) und "woman" (Frau) dieses Wortspiel (in der 1926 veröffentlichten Übersetzung von Moffatt wird das folgendermaßen herausgehoben: “This shall be called Wo-man, for from man was she taken.”)

In deutschen Übersetzungen von Luther (alle Versionen) und Menge (1926) wird dieses Wortspiel mit dem eigens dafür geschaffenen Neologismus "Männin" (für "Frau") nachgebildet.

Translator: Jost Zetzsche

destroy them along with the earth

The Hebrew that is most often translated as “destroy them along with the earth” in English is translated in Nyamwezi as “destroy them from the earth” (Source: Pioneer Bible Translators, project-specific translation notes in Paratext)

The Translator’s Handbook on Genesis (Reyburn / Fry 1997) supports this choice. See also “from the earth” in Genesis 6:7.

Translation commentary on Genesis 41:16

As in 40.8 Joseph does not claim for himself any special power or secret knowledge, as the king’s magicians might.

It is not in me is literally “Not I.” See Good News Translation. We may express this thought as “I am not the one” or “It is not me who does it.” One translation expresses it like this: “No, King. I can’t do this. But God….” Note that Good News Translation softens Joseph’s reply by the address “Your majesty.”

God will give Pharaoh a favorable answer: this is literally “God will answer the peace of Pharaoh.” The word for “peace” includes such meanings as well-being, prosperity, and success. Joseph makes clear in verse 28 that God is the origin of the dream, and in verse 32 that God is speaking to the king to prepare him for what is about to happen. Accordingly favorable means that the interpretation of the dream will be for the good of the king, and we may translate, for example, “God will give the king a good answer” or “God will give your majesty an explanation that will be for your good.”

Quoted with permission from Reyburn, William D. and Fry, Euan McG. A Handbook on Genesis. (UBS Helps for Translators). New York: UBS, 1997. For this and other handbooks for translators see here .

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Gen. 42:28)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the inclusive pronoun (including all the brothers).

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Gen. 42:30)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the exclusive pronoun (excluding Jacob).

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Gen. 42:31)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the exclusive pronoun (excluding Jacob).

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Gen. 42:32)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the exclusive pronoun (excluding Joseph and Jacob).

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Gen. 33:12)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). (Click or tap here to see more details)

The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, the Jarai and Adamawa Fulfulde translators selected the inclusive form (including Jacob).