burial place, tomb

The Hebrew that is translated in English as “burial place/ground” or “tomb” (in older version: “sepulchre”) is translated in Bari with the term dili: “hole.” “In Bari a distinction is made between the empty and the filled-in grave. Gulom is used when the grave has received its dead, the earth has been shoveled in and the top smoothed over and beaten hard. Dili is used of the unfilled grave waiting to receive its dead, which is of course the meaning needed for this particular verse.”

Source: P. Guillebaud in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 189ff.

all who went in at the gate of his city

The Hebrew that is typically translated as “all who went in at the gate of his city” in English was translated in Bari as “all who gather together at the gate of his city” because “if we had translated this literally we should have conveyed the opposite meaning, i.e. that it was the country people coming in to market from outside that was intended, instead of the people of the place. So we have used a word meaning ‘to gather together’ in place of ‘went in’, ‘those who gather together’ by implication being the inhabitants of the city.”

Source: P. Guillebaud in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 189ff.

rest (after creation)

The Hebrew term that is typically translated as “rest” in English is translated in Bari as “stand.”

P. Guillebaud (in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 189ff.) explains: “The normal word for ‘rest,’ yukan, which had been used originally had to be rejected, because, as [the language assistant] Daniele pointed out, it also means taking a rest or ‘breather,’ and so implies the resumption of work after a pause. As the point here is the cessation of work, we had to use a different term altogether, literally ‘God stood from work.’ (In Exod. 31:17 God is said to have ‘rested’ and to have ‘refreshed himself’ after the labours of creation.)”

use up the money that was given for us

“In Genesis 31:15, Rachel and Leah complain that their father has been using up ‘the money given for us’. in Bari a phrase for dowry was used and (…) a phrase that is often heard, that ‘he has eaten our dowry.’ This quite often happens to a girl who is in the process of betrothal; if her father is unscrupulous he will arrange a marriage and receive and use up the dowry without giving the girl a proper chance to refuse, unless she is able to repay the money herself. (…) This parallel does not go the whole way, I know, but the idea behind the complaint is similar and very real in Bari.”

Source: Source: P. Guillebaud in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 189ff.

strong donkey

“It was interesting to find how similar some of the Hebrew ways of expression are to Bari idiom. (…) [For instance], in Genesis 49:14 (‘Issachar is a strong donkey’) Hebrew literally has ‘a bony donkey.’ In English this would convey the opposite meaning, as we associate ‘bony’ with ‘thin’; but when we came to translate this, Daniele [the language assistant] told me that Bari says ‘You are a man with bones,’ or ‘You have ribs,’ meaning that you are strong. So it seems that it is the bones and ribs in Bari which denote strength, as seems to be the case in Hebrew, rather than the muscles, as in English.”

Source: Source: P. Guillebaud in The Bible Translator 1965, p. 189ff.