heard

The Hebrew that is translated as “I have indeed heard (the cry of my people)” or “(the cry of the people) has come to me” in some English translations is translated into Thai (Thai Common Language Version, 1985) as “take heart and put into” meaning “take a deep interest in.”

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 5:16)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, the Adamawa Fulfulde translation uses the exclusive pronoun, “since it excludes the king.”

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 17:9)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the inclusive form (“‘Us’ of course includes Moses, Joshua, and all the Israelites.”).

The Jarai and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation both use the inclusive pronoun.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 8:10)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse (“our God” in English translations), translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding the addressee). This is what the Jarai translators did.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 8:27)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse (“our God” in English translations), translators typically select the exclusive form (excluding the addressee). This is what the Jarai translators did.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 10:25)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For both parts of this verse with a 1st person plural pronoun, the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the exclusive pronoun, “since it excludes the king.”

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 12:27)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the inclusive form. (“These words were to be used in all future observances of the Passover, so that all Israelites might experience the LORD’s deliverance — They are still a part of the Jewish liturgy. Therefore the pronoun our should be understood as inclusive rather than exclusive.”)

Both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the inclusive pronoun.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 13:14)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the inclusive form. (“These words were to be spoken for generations to come, so that through this ritual all Israelites will be able to feel themselves included in the deliverance from Egypt and come to understand Yahweh’s deliverance anew.”)

The Adamawa Fulfulde translation uses the inclusive pronoun.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 13:15)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the inclusive form. (“These words were to be spoken for generations to come, so that through this ritual all Israelites will be able to feel themselves included in the deliverance from Egypt and come to understand Yahweh’s deliverance anew.”)

Both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the inclusive pronoun.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 13:16)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the inclusive form. (“These words were to be spoken for generations to come, so that through this ritual all Israelites will be able to feel themselves included in the deliverance from Egypt and come to understand Yahweh’s deliverance anew.”)

Both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the inclusive pronoun.

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 3:18)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For both parts of this verse with a 1st person plural pronoun, the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the exclusive pronoun, “since it excludes the king.”

inclusive vs. exclusive pronoun (Exo. 14:5)

Many languages distinguish between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns (“we”). The inclusive “we” specifically includes the addressee (“you and I and possibly others”), while the exclusive “we” specifically excludes the addressee (“he/she/they and I, but not you”). This grammatical distinction is called “clusivity.” While Semitic languages such as Hebrew or most Indo-European languages such as Greek or English do not make that distinction, translators of languages with that distinction have to make a choice every time they encounter “we” or a form thereof (in English: “we,” “our,” or “us”).

For this verse, translators typically select the inclusive form (including the Pharaoh and his officials).

Both the Jarai translation and the Adamawa Fulfulde translation use the inclusive pronoun.