shake heads

The phrase that is translated in English translations as “are horrified and shake their heads” is translated into Afar as Ahamal qagabsiteloonuuh, namma xabanal gaba hayya heenih.: “They are shocked at this, and put both hands on their cheeks.” (Shock is expressed physically by placing their hands on their cheeks, not shaking their heads.)

See also insulted him and shook their heads.

clothes torn

The Hebrew that is often translated in English as “with his clothes torn” is translated in Anuak with the addition “that shows his fallen liver” (i.e., grief, sadness)

For other translations using the term “liver” in Anuak see here and see Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling.”

salvation

The Greek and Hebrew that is translated with “salvation” in English is translated in the following ways:

  • San Blas Kuna: “to receive help for bad deeds” (“this help is not just any kind of help but help for the soul which has sinned)
  • Northwestern Dinka: “help as to his soul” (“or literally, ‘his breath'”) (source for this and the one above: Nida 1952, p. 140)
  • Central Mazahua: “healing the heart” (source: Nida 1952, p. 40)
  • Tzeltal: col: “to get loose,” “to go free,” “to get well” (source: Marianna C. Slocum in The Bible Translator 1958, p. 49f.)
  • Aari: “the day our Savior comes” (in Rom 13:11) (source: Loren Bliese)

in Mairasi its is translated as “life fruit” or “life fruit all mashed out.” Lloyd Peckham explains: “In secret stories, not knowable to women nor children, there was a magical fruit of life. If referred to vaguely, without specifying the specific ‘fruit,’ it can be an expression for eternity.” And for “all masked out” he expains: “Bark cloth required pounding. It got longer and wider as it got pounded. Similarly, life gets pounded or mashed to lengthen it into infinity. Tubers also get mashed into the standard way of serving the staple food, like the fufu of Uganda, or like poi of Hawaii. It spreads out into infinity.” (See also eternity / forever)

celebrated, rejoiced greatly

The Hebrew that is translated as “rejoiced greatly” or “celebrated” in many English versions is translated into Anuak as “got a very sweet stomach.”

See also Seat of the Mind for traditional views of “ways of knowing, thinking, and feeling.”

height was like the height of cedars and was strong as oaks

The Hebrew that is translated in English as “height was like the height of cedars and was strong as oaks” is translated in Afar as xexxaarah calawwayti gide yakkeeh caylah lubak inna luk yenehiyya: “the length of (hemispherical) house poles and strength as lions.” (Afar portable houses have frames of thin poles up to nine feet long bent over the top. These poles are covered with mats and are broken down and loaded on camels when they migrate to areas where there is grass for their animals.)

overthrown, trip up

The phrase that is translated into English translations as “let them be tripped up (or overthrown) before you” is translated into Afar as Isik foocal irimbi selte caxa ken ab.: Make them wood that has been eaten by termites before you.” (Termites are a big problem destroying wood in the Afar region.)

a man against his father and a daughter against her mother

In Afar the Greek that is translated into English as “a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother” is translated as lab-baxa kay abbah fillat, say-baxa tet inah fillat . . . umaaneh tittin amot haa’gida: “that a male child place on his father’s neck, (and) a female child on her mother’s neck . . . together on their heads for evil.” (Accusation is placing evil on the neck or head of the person.)