The Hebrew that is translated as “firmament,” “expanse,” or “dome” in English is translated in Roviana as galegalearane: “the open space between the earth and the sky” and in Moru as “empty space.”
In Idoma it is translated as okpanco — “the top of the sky.” “According to tradition, when the world began, the okpanco was low. A woman was pounding yams and her pestle kept hitting okpanco and it started going higher and higher.”
In Naskapi it is translated as “sky skin” — “like a caribou skin.”
(Sources: Roviana: Carl Gross; Moru: Jan Sterk; Idoma: Rob Koops; Naskapi: Doug Lockhart in Word Alive 2013)
In Lingala it is translated as “surface.” Sigurd F. Westberg (in The Bible Translator 1956, p. 117ff.) explains: “The ‘firmament’ in Genesis 1 gave us another problem. Its meaning in English is certainly not immediately obvious. The dictionary tells us that the Hebrew means something close to our English word ’expanse*. It seems, however, that the Hebrew idea may not always have been as abstract as that, for Isaiah says that the Lord ‘stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.’ But the Greek word used in the Septuagint gives the idea of a firm and solid structure, and this is the idea that is carried out in our English word ‘firmament.’ Modern translations into English, Swedish, Norwegian and French take one or the other of these two leads. It is the predicament of the translator that he dare not hesitate too long between ideas. (…) In this case we tried to arrive at ’expanse’ by the use of a word meaning ’width,’ but we found that it is not really understandable except as it is associated with the noun of which it indicates the width. It cannot be used alone. The word we finally used means ‘surface,’ but it also has the idea of something stretched out or smoothed out. It is more concrete than we should like, but it does not require identity with a concrete object as does the word for width’.’
The Hebrew that is translated in English as “I will set my face against them” is translated in Taita with an existing idiom: “I will look at them badly” (= in anger).
See also I will set my face against you.
The Greek that is translated as “He has become to us a reproof of our thoughts” or “He has become a censure of our thoughts” in English is translated in Kikuyu as “To us he has become someone who disturbs our consciences / thoughts.”
The Greek that is translated in English as “greed” or “covetousness” is translated in Zande as “having a big heart for everything” (source: Jan Sterk).
In Tzeltal it is “small-hearted,” in Yucateco “desiring what other have,” and in Shipibo-Conibo “going crazy for things.” (Source: Nida, p. 133f.)
See also extortioner / swindler.
The Greek that is rendered in English as “conscience” is translated into Aari as “our thoughts speak to us,” in Nuer it is “the knowledge of their heart” (source: Jan Sterk), and in Cheke Holo “to know what is straight and what is wrong” (source: Carl Gross).
See also conscience seared and perfect conscience / clear conscience and brothers, up to this day I have lived my life with a clear conscience before God.
The Hebrew that is translated as “(the) deep” in English is translated in Luba-Lulua as “a very deep hole in which there is water.”
The Greek that is translated in English as “extortioner” or “swindler” is translated in Zande as “person with big heart.”
See also greed / covetousness.
What is translated into English as “the wrath of God” (Good News Translation: “God’s anger”) has to be referred to in Bengali as judgment, punishment or whatever fits the context. In Bengali culture, anger is by definition bad and can never be predicated of God. (Source: David Clark)
In Kikuyu the whole phrase that is translated in English as “storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath” or similar is translated as “you are increasing for yourself God’s wrath.” (Source: Jan Sterk)
In Quetzaltepec Mixe it is translated with a term “that not only expresses anger, but also punishment.” (Source: Robert Bascom)
See also anger.
The Hebrew that is translated as “my country” in English is translated in Luba-Lulua as “our country” (the phrase “my country” is reserved for chiefs and presidents).
The Greek that is translated as “confesses the Son” or “acknowledges the Son” in English is translated in Mbandja as “whoever says openly that he has faith in the Son.”
The Greek that is translated as “perfect the conscience” or “clear conscience” is translated in Yoruba as “give peace of heart completely.”
See also conscience.
The Greek that is translated as “promise” in English is translated in Mbandja as “the thing which he said he would certainly give.”