desert, wilderness

The Greek that is translated as “desert” or “wilderness” in English is translated as “a place where noisiness is cut off (or: stops)” in Mairasi, “big barren-field” (pandaso bhalano) in Muna, “uninhabited place” in Wantoat, “where no people dwell” in Umiray Dumaget Agta, “where no house is” (Shipibo-Conibo), “barren field” (Balinese), “large empty place” (Ocotlán Zapotec)´, and in Pa’o Karen as “jungle” (denoting a placer without any towns, villages and tilled fields).

Sources: Mairasi: Enggavoter 2004; Muna: René van den Berg; Wantoat: Holzhausen 1991, p. 38; Umiray Dumaget Agta: Larson 1998, p. 98; Shipibo-Conibo: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.; Balinese: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.; Ocotlán Zapotec: (B. Moore / G. Turner in Notes on Translation 1967, p. 1ff.; Pa’o Karen: Gordon Luce in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 153f.

See also wilderness and desolate wilderness.

wild honey

The Greek that is translated as “wild honey” in English was difficult to translate in Toba and Iyojwa’ja Chorote.

Bill Mitchell (in Omanson 2001, p. 435) explains why: “Unlike urban, industrialized society, the indigenous way of life is inextricably linked with the land. A deep relationship with nature permeates all of life. This can sometimes be seen in the wealth of vocabulary for certain items. Mark 1:6 and Matthew 3:4 state that John the Baptist ate ‘wild honey.’ The Tobas of northern Argentina have ten different words for ‘wild honey,’ the Chorotes have seven or eight. The biblical text does not specify a type of wild honey, but Toba translators live in the Gran Chaco and harvest wild honey. They want to use the exact word; they do not have a generic term.”

In both cases the translators ended up using the most common term for “wild honey.”

In Balinese, “wild honey” is translated as “honey of bees who shut out the sun” (source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.) and in Shipibo-Conibo as “bee liquid” (source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.).

complete verse (Mark 1:18)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:18:

  • Uma: “They left-behind their nets, and beginning that day they followed Yesus.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Na, immediately they left their fishing-nets and followed now Isa.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And immediately they left off netting and went with him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “They immediately-set-down their nets and went-with him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When those two heard, they then left their fishing and truly did go with Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Just then they abandoned the nets. Having abandoned them, they went with Jesus.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “He just said so, then they left their cast-nets and followed Him.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:29)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:29:

  • Uma: “When Yesus his disciples returned from that prayer house, they went to the home of Simon and Andreas. Yakobus and Yohanes also went with them.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “After that, Isa went out of the prayer-house and entered the house of Simon and Andariyas. He was together with Yakub and Yahiya.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Then Jesus and company left the church and went to the house of Simon and Andrew. James and John went also with them.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When plural Jesus came-out of the synagogue, they went-directly to the house of Simon and Andrew. Santiago and Juan went also.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “On their coming out of the worship-place, Jesus and company went to the house of those brothers, Simon and Andres. Their companions in going there were Santiago and Juan.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Just then they went out of the small house to praise God in. Having gone out they went and arrived at the house of Simon and Andrew. James, John with them arrived.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “When they came out of the place of worship. Jesus went in the house of Andreas and Simon, followed by Jakub and Jokanan.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:7)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:7:

  • Uma: “He spread this news: ‘After me will come one whose power is greater than me/mine. Even to kneel to undo his shoe I am not worthy.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “And he proclaimed like this: ‘There is (someone),’ he said, ‘coming after me, (who is) more powerful than I. I am not even worthy to bend down to loosen the string of his shoes.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Then John preached to the people saying, ‘There is a person coming who will take my place. That person is very much greater than I, because even to take off his shoes, I am not yet worthy to be his servant.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He was telling the many-people, ‘There is someone greater (lit. higher) than I who is following-me. And because of this greatness of his, I am not worthy to even untie the laces of his shoes.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He was always saying when he was teaching, ‘The one following me will come who is far superior to me. Even to undo the tie of his footwear to remove them is not possible/acceptable for me to do, for his greatness/importance it really very much.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then he told them a word: Back of me comes one surpassing me in strength. I am not equal, though I bend down, to untie his shoe string.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “Then he preached to the people as follows: ‘After me there comes one mightier than. Even to stoop down to loose the strings of His sandal I feel not fit at all.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:40)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:40:

  • Uma: “A person who had leprosy came to Yesus. He kneeled down requesting-help, he said: ‘If may, [i.e., if I may be so bold as to ask] please heal me.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then a certain leper came to Isa. This person/man stood on his knees humbling himself before Isa and he really begged, he said, ‘If you want to you can heal me.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “There was a leper person who came to Jesus, and that person knelt down before Jesus begging him, saying, ‘f it’s good to your breath, you can heal me from this very filthy disease of mine.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “On one-occasion, a man who was sick with a fearful skin disease went to Jesus. He knelt before him entreating, ‘I know that you (sing.) are-able to remove this sickness of mine if you (sing.) want to.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Once there was a person who was a leper who went to Jesus for help. He bowed down and begged-for-pity. He said, ‘If supposing you want to, you really could heal me.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then a certain Lazarus sickness possessor man came to Jesus, to ask. Having come and knelt down before him, he said: You wanting to. you can arrange me, he said.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “Then there came a man ill with [leprosy], beseeching Jesus. He knelt down before Him and said: ‘If you be so gracious, of course you can clean my stain.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:19)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:19:

  • Uma: “Yesus continued walking, [and] not-yet far from there he again saw two brothers: Yakobus and Yohanes, the children of Zebedeus. They were fixing there nets in the boat.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then when he had walked some way/distance he saw two siblings, Yakub and Yahiya, the sons of Sebede. They were there in their boat (bangka’) getting nets ready.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus continued walking along, and while he was walking Jesus saw James and the younger brother of James, John, who were the sons of Zebedee. They were repairing their nets in their boat.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “As they were walking further along the edge of the lake, Jesus saw another two siblings who were Santiago and Juan. They were riding in their boat preparing their nets.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus continued walking and just a bit further he came upon two more brothers who were Santiago and Juan. They were the sons of Zebedeo. They were fixing their trawl-net there in the boat.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then going a little farther on, he saw Zebedee’s child James. He saw his brother John too. when they were mending cast-nets in the canoe.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “Going on but a bit further, then He saw Jakub with his brother, Jokanan, children to Zabdi, while they were in the boat mending their nets.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:30)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:30:

  • Uma: “There, Petrus’s mother-in-law was lying down because she had-a-fever. They quickly told Yesus that she was sick.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The mother-in-law of Simon was lying there having a fever. So-then immediately the people there told Isa about her.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “At that time the mother-in-law of Simon was sick and lying down with a fever. When Jesus arrived at the house, they told Jesus that Simon’s mother-in-law was sick.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Would-you-believe (discourse particle indicating a new development) Simon’s mother-in-law was lying-down because she was having-a-fever. They told-it to Jesus at once.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “On their arrival, the mother-in-law of Simon was lying down for she was fevering. They at once told Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then Simon’s mother-in-law was laid down. doing a fever. Just then they told Jesus regarding her.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “The mother-in-law of Simon lay there sick fevering. and then quickly people there told Him about her.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:9)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:9:

  • Uma: “One day, Yesus left Nazaret-town in Galilea-land, he came and requested-to-be-baptized by Yohanes. Yohanes baptized him in the Yordan river.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then, at that time Isa arrived from Nasaret, a certain town there in the place/land Jalil. And he was bathed by Yahiya there in the river/water Jordan.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Now at that time when John was baptizing, Jesus came to John from the village of Nazareth in the province of Galilee, and John baptized him in the river Jordan.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “During that time when Juan was baptizing, Jesus arrived from Nazaret, a town in the province Galilea, and Juan baptized him in the river Jordan.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “At that time Jesus arrived coming from Nazaret in the district of Galilea. When he arrived there, he was baptized by Juan there in the river Jordan.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then during those days Jesus came from Nazareth which is in Galilee. When he came from there, John washed him, at the Jordan.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “At that time. Ida [Ida is a personal article referring to the highest caste] Jesus came from the village Nasaret in the territory of Galilea, and then was baptized by Jokanan in the river Jarden.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:41)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:41:

  • Uma: “Yesus’ love welled up seeing him. That is why he touched him and said to him: ‘[You] certainly may. I heal you (sing.)!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa had really pity on him. He stretched-out his hand and he touched the leper and said, ‘I really want to. You are now healed.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus took pity on him and placed his hand on him and said, ‘It is very good to my breath. Be healed.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Jesus felt-pity and extended his hand/arm to place it on that man. Then he said, ‘I want to, be cleaned.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus truly did pity him. He touched that person, speaking at the same time, saying, ‘I really want to. Right now, you will now get better!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then pitying him he extended his hand. Having extended it, he touched him. He said: I want to. Be arranged, he said.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “In His pity His mind was as it were taken out of Him, and then He stretched forth His hand, touched him and said: ‘So is my wish. Let your stain be taken away.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:20)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:20:

  • Uma: “He called them to follow him. So they left their father in the boat with the people with them who were employed [lit., who ate salary], and they followed Yesus.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Immediately they were called by Isa and asked by him to come along (lit. taken/carried by him). So-then they left their father in the boat and the people they were employing, and they followed now Isa.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when Jesus saw them, he called them to come with him, and then they left their father and their hired netters in the boat, and they went with Jesus.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Jesus immediately-called them, and they left their father and the men he was salarying in the boat, and they went-with Jesus too.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “They were also called by Jesus. Those two also followed (right behind) Jesus. As for their father, he was there still in the boat, left. Just his people/workers were his companions.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then they left their father Zebedee seated in the canoe. Together with the workers they abandoned him. Having abandoned him, they went together behind Jesus.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “Then He called them too and they followed in Jesus’ steps. Their father Zabdi was left behind by them in the boat with the people that receive wages.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:31)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:31:

  • Uma: “From there, he went to her sleeping-place, he held her hand, and he helped-her-get-up. She immediately got well, and she served them.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa went there and took the hand of the woman and caused her to get up. So-then she was already healed. Then she got up and they were fed by her.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus went to her and took her by the hand and caused her to get up, and immediately the fever left, and she cooked a meal for Jesus and company.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then Jesus approached her, and took-her-hand to help her to get-up. Right-then her fever was-removed, and she fed them.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus approached that woman, took hold of (her) hand and sat her up. The fever of that woman immediately dropped and she prepared-food to set-a-meal for Jesus and company.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then Jesus having neared her. raised her up, having hand-grasped her. Just then, having left the fever, she made them eat.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “Jesus then approached her, took her hand and made her rise up; verily, did the fever leave her, after which she served the people there.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)