desert, wilderness

The Greek that is translated as “desert” or “wilderness” in English is translated as “a place where noisiness is cut off (or: stops)” in Mairasi, “big barren-field” (pandaso bhalano) in Muna, “uninhabited place” in Wantoat, “where no people dwell” in Umiray Dumaget Agta, “where no house is” (Shipibo-Conibo), and “barren field” (Balinese).

Sources: Mairasi: Enggavoter 2004; Muna: René van den Berg; Wantoat: Holzhausen 1991, p. 38; Umiray Dumaget Agta: Larson 1998, p. 98; Shipibo-Conibo: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.; Balinese: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff..

See also wilderness.

wild honey

The Greek that is translated as “wild honey” in English was difficult to translate in Toba and Iyojwa’ja Chorote.

Bill Mitchell (in Omanson 2001, p. 435) explains why: “Unlike urban, industrialized society, the indigenous way of life is inextricably linked with the land. A deep relationship with nature permeates all of life. This can sometimes be seen in the wealth of vocabulary for certain items. Mark 1:6 and Matthew 3:4 state that John the Baptist ate ‘wild honey.’ The Tobas of northern Argentina have ten different words for ‘wild honey,’ the Chorotes have seven or eight. The biblical text does not specify a type of wild honey, but Toba translators live in the Gran Chaco and harvest wild honey. They want to use the exact word; they do not have a generic term.”

In both cases the translators ended up using the most common term for “wild honey.”

In Balinese, “wild honey” is translated as “honey of bees who shut out the sun” (source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.) and in Shipibo-Conibo as “bee liquid” (source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.).

complete verse (Mark 1:15)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:15:

  • Uma: “he said: ‘The time has almost arrived for God to become King on earth! Repent from your sins, believe the Good News.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘The time that was foretold has come,’ he said, ‘and the time of God’s ruling is near. Regret your sins and leave them now. And believe the good news.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And he said, ‘This is the time when the long ago prophecies will be fulfilled because God will soon now rule over you. Give up your bad deeds and believe the good news.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He said, ‘The time that God designated has arrived. His ruling is near-in-time. Repent therefore of your sins and believe the good news.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He was teaching, saying, ‘The determined time has come. The kingdom of God is now close. Repent now of your sins and drop/give-up them. Believe/obey this Good News.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Thus he said to them: The when-it-is is already coming-up. Make the mind another. Be strong on the good word.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “His words: ‘Now it is the time. the kingdom of God is already near. Change your minds and believe the good news.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:28)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:28:

  • Uma: “From there, the news talking-about Yesus was spread all over Galilea-land.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then his fame immediately became well-known in all the places there in the land Jalil.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And through this the fame of Jesus quickly spread through the whole province of Galilee.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “That being so, (news) concerning Jesus was rapidly reported-from-one-to-another in all parts of Galilea.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The news concerning Jesus spread very quickly over the whole area of Galilea.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Just then the word they spoke regarding Jesus widened out, to every place, circling the whole Galilee land.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “Quickly then the news about Jesus spread in the whole territory of Galilea.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:5:

  • Uma: “Many people went to the wilderness [empty field] wanting to hear Yohaness words. There were those from Yerusalem-town and from all the towns Yudea-land. They went to confess their sins, and he baptized them in the Jordan river, a sign of their having repented from their sins.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then many people from the many-places there in Yahudiya and from Awrusalam went to him. They confessed their sins and were baptized by Yahiya in the river/water Jordan.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “The many people went after John. They came from the towns in all the province of Judea, and there were even people who came from the city of Jerusalem. And those people confessed their sins and were baptized by John in the river Jordan.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “The inhabitants of Jerusalem and those-who-resided in all the towns in Judea were going to him. They were confessing their sins and then Juan would baptize them in the Jordan river.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The people really-all went to him from the towns in the district of Judea, including the taga Jerusalem. They were repenting of their sins and having themselves baptized by Juan in the river Jordan, testifying that they would now drop/give-up sin.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then all those of Judea land, all the Jerusalem people, they used to go to John. Then he washed them [‘wash’ does not eliminate immersion], at the Jordan stream, when they said: It is true. We have sinned.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “There the whole country of Judea and all the inhabitants of the city of Jerusalem came out to meet Jokanan, and then they were baptized in the river Jarden, while they confessed their sins.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:40)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:40:

  • Uma: “A person who had leprosy came to Yesus. He kneeled down requesting-help, he said: ‘If may, [i.e., if I may be so bold as to ask] please heal me.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then a certain leper came to Isa. This person/man stood on his knees humbling himself before Isa and he really begged, he said, ‘If you want to you can heal me.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “There was a leper person who came to Jesus, and that person knelt down before Jesus begging him, saying, ‘f it’s good to your breath, you can heal me from this very filthy disease of mine.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “On one-occasion, a man who was sick with a fearful skin disease went to Jesus. He knelt before him entreating, ‘I know that you (singular) are-able to remove this sickness of mine if you (singular) want to.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Once there was a person who was a leper who went to Jesus for help. He bowed down and begged-for-pity. He said, ‘If supposing you want to, you really could heal me.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then a certain Lazarus sickness possessor man came to Jesus, to ask. Having come and knelt down before him, he said: You wanting to. you can arrange me, he said.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “Then there came a man ill with [leprosy], beseeching Jesus. He knelt down before Him and said: ‘If you be so gracious, of course you can clean my stain.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:17)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:17:

  • Uma: “Yesus said to them, ‘Come follow me! You will no longer fish, hunting for fish. From now on I give you the work of teaching people to believe in me.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa said to them, ‘Come follow me. Your work is to catch/get fish. But when you follow me, I will teach you to catch/get people to follow me.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus said to them, ‘So you are hunters for fish? Come with me and it is people you will be able to get to be my disciples.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He said to them, ‘Until now, you have been net-fishing fish. Become my disciples so that I will teach you to persuade people.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus said to them, ‘Come with me, for I will make you to be like you’re fishing for men.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then he said to them: Come ye behind me, he said. I will make you enter 19 as people getters.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “His words to them: ‘Hither now, follow me, I will make you cast-net-fishers of men.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:29)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:29:

  • Uma: “When Yesus his disciples returned from that prayer house, they went to the home of Simon and Andreas. Yakobus and Yohanes also went with them.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “After that, Isa went out of the prayer-house and entered the house of Simon and Andariyas. He was together with Yakub and Yahiya.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Then Jesus and company left the church and went to the house of Simon and Andrew. James and John went also with them.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When plural Jesus came-out of the synagogue, they went-directly to the house of Simon and Andrew. Santiago and Juan went also.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “On their coming out of the worship-place, Jesus and company went to the house of those brothers, Simon and Andres. Their companions in going there were Santiago and Juan.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Just then they went out of the small house to praise God in. Having gone out they went and arrived at the house of Simon and Andrew. James, John with them arrived.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “When they came out of the place of worship. Jesus went in the house of Andreas and Simon, followed by Jakub and Jokanan.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:6)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:6:

  • Uma: “Yohanes’ clothes were made of a domestic-animal called a camel. His belt was from leather. His food as grasshoppers and honey.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The clothes of Yahiya were woven camel’s hair and his belt was of leather (lit. cow hide). His food was locusts and honey.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Now this John was shirted in cloth woven of camel’s hair and belted with dried skin. His food was locusts and honey.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Juan’s clothes were woven of camel hair and his belt was of rawhide. What-he-ate also was locusts and honey (lit. water) of the wild-bee.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “The clothes of Juan were cloth made from the hair/fur of the kamelyo animal, and his belt was made from cow hide. Grasshoppers which are locusts and honey of bees were his food.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then John was dressed in camel fur, loin-tied with a skin belt, eating grasshoppers, drinking bee liquid.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “The clothes of Jokanan were made of camel’s hair, he had a belt of leather. his food was but locusts and honey of bees who shut out the sun [‘common expression for wild bees’]. ” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:41)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:41:

  • Uma: “Yesus’ love welled up seeing him. That is why he touched him and said to him: ‘[You] certainly may. I heal you (sing.)!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Isa had really pity on him. He stretched-out his hand and he touched the leper and said, ‘I really want to. You are now healed.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Jesus took pity on him and placed his hand on him and said, ‘It is very good to my breath. Be healed.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Jesus felt-pity and extended his hand/arm to place it on that man. Then he said, ‘I want to, be cleaned.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Jesus truly did pity him. He touched that person, speaking at the same time, saying, ‘I really want to. Right now, you will now get better!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then pitying him he extended his hand. Having extended it, he touched him. He said: I want to. Be arranged, he said.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “In His pity His mind was as it were taken out of Him, and then He stretched forth His hand, touched him and said: ‘So is my wish. Let your stain be taken away.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:18)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:18:

  • Uma: “They left-behind their nets, and beginning that day they followed Yesus.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Na, immediately they left their fishing-nets and followed now Isa.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And immediately they left off netting and went with him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “They immediately-set-down their nets and went-with him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When those two heard, they then left their fishing and truly did go with Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Just then they abandoned the nets. Having abandoned them, they went with Jesus.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “He just said so, then they left their cast-nets and followed Him.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)

complete verse (Mark 1:30)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:30:

  • Uma: “There, Petrus’s mother-in-law was lying down because she had-a-fever. They quickly told Yesus that she was sick.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “The mother-in-law of Simon was lying there having a fever. So-then immediately the people there told Isa about her.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “At that time the mother-in-law of Simon was sick and lying down with a fever. When Jesus arrived at the house, they told Jesus that Simon’s mother-in-law was sick.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Would-you-believe (discourse particle indicating a new development) Simon’s mother-in-law was lying-down because she was having-a-fever. They told-it to Jesus at once.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “On their arrival, the mother-in-law of Simon was lying down for she was fevering. They at once told Jesus.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then Simon’s mother-in-law was laid down. doing a fever. Just then they told Jesus regarding her.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff.)
  • Balinese: “The mother-in-law of Simon lay there sick fevering. and then quickly people there told Him about her.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff.)