wild honey

The Greek that is translated as “wild honey” in English was difficult to translate in Toba and Iyojwa’ja Chorote.

Bill Mitchell (in Omanson 2001, p. 435) explains why: “Unlike urban, industrialized society, the indigenous way of life is inextricably linked with the land. A deep relationship with nature permeates all of life. This can sometimes be seen in the wealth of vocabulary for certain items. Mark 1:6 and Matthew 3:4 state that John the Baptist ate ‘wild honey.’ The Tobas of northern Argentina have ten different words for ‘wild honey,’ the Chorotes have seven or eight. The biblical text does not specify a type of wild honey, but Toba translators live in the Gran Chaco and harvest wild honey. They want to use the exact word; they do not have a generic term.”

In both cases the translators ended up using the most common term for “wild honey.”

In Balinese, “wild honey” is translated as “honey of bees who shut out the sun” (source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. ) and in Shipibo-Conibo as “bee liquid” (source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. ).

desert, wilderness

The Greek that is translated as “desert” or “wilderness” in English is translated in a number of ways:

Note that in Luke 15:4, usually a term is used that denotes pastoral land, such as “eating/grazing-place” in Tagbanwa (source: Tagbanwa Back Translation).

See also wilderness and desolate wilderness.

complete verse (Mark 1:14)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:14:

  • Uma: “Not long after that, Yohanes the Baptizer was arrested and imprisoned. At that time, Yesus went Galilea-land and spread the good news that is from God,” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “After Yahiya had been imprisoned by the king, Isa went to the place/land Jalil. He proclaimed about the good news from God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when John had been arrested by King Herod, Jesus returned to the province of Galilee and preached there to the people the good news which comes from God.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When Juan was already (lit. done) imprisoned, Jesus returned to Galilea to preach the good news from God.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When Juan was now in prison, Jesus returned home to Galilea. He taught the Good News there which came from God.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then back of John being shut in, Jesus went back to Galilee. Going, he told along the good word regarding Ruler God coming.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “After Jokanan had been put in jail, then Jesus came to the country Galilea to spread the good news, (which is) the Word of God.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )

complete verse (Mark 1:25)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:25:

  • Uma: “Yesus said to that evil spirit: ‘Be quiet! Come out from that person!'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “But Isa scolded the demon. He said, ‘Don’t talk. Come out of that person.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And Jesus said to that demon, ‘Be quiet! Get away from him!'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Then Jesus commanded the evil-spirit saying, ‘You (sing.) be quiet! Leave him.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “When Jesus heard, he rebuked him. He said, ‘Stop all that noise! Leave him now!'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then Jesus scolded him. Be silent, he said, Come out of him.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “He (or they) were rebuked by Him: ‘Keep silent. Take yourself away out of this man.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )

complete verse (Mark 1:3)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:3:

  • Uma: “‘He calls in the wilderness [lit., empty field], he says: ‘The Lord is almost come! Prepare ahead-of-time for him his road. Make-flat ahead-of-time the road that he will pass on.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “There is a person calling in the lonely place (wilderness). This is what he says: ‘Soon the Lord/Leader will come/arrive. Make the way smooth where he will pass! Make the way straight which he will follow!'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “He will be in the land where people do not live. And there he will be heard by people who come out to meet him; he will say, ‘The Lord will soon arrive. Clear out the way he will go; straighten out the path he will walk on, which is to say get ready for his coming.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He will shout/speak-in-a-loud-voice in the place that has no inhabitants saying, ‘Prepare where-the Lord who is coming -will-walk so that the path he-will-walk-on will be good.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “‘There is one calling out in the wilderness (lit. place where-one-could-starve), saying, ‘You (pl.) make a trail for the Lord/Chief. Make-direct and improve/make-properly this which he will walk on.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “This is the word of one calling where no house is: Arrange Owner God’s [Lord’s] path for him. Straighten his little paths.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “there is the voice of a man crying in the
    barren field thus: ‘Open up a way where the Lord will go, make straight his paths,'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )

complete verse (Mark 1:36)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:36:

  • Uma: “Simon and his companions went to look for him. When they found him, they said:” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then, because he was not there in the house, he was searched for by Simon and company.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And when morning came, Simon and his companions went to look for him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “When plural Simon got-up, they went to look-and-look-for him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He was looked for by Simon and his companions.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then Simon and those (who) were with him went to seek him.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “Then Simon and the people that were with him, went after Him.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )

complete verse (Mark 1:15)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:15:

  • Uma: “he said: ‘The time has almost arrived for God to become King on earth! Repent from your sins, believe the Good News.'” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “‘The time that was foretold has come,’ he said, ‘and the time of God’s ruling is near. Regret your sins and leave them now. And believe the good news.'” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And he said, ‘This is the time when the long ago prophecies will be fulfilled because God will soon now rule over you. Give up your bad deeds and believe the good news.'” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He said, ‘The time that God designated has arrived. His ruling is near-in-time. Repent therefore of your sins and believe the good news.'” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He was teaching, saying, ‘The determined time has come. The kingdom of God is now close. Repent now of your sins and drop/give-up them. Believe/obey this Good News.'” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Thus he said to them: The when-it-is is already coming-up. Make the mind another. Be strong on the good word.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “His words: ‘Now it is the time. the kingdom of God is already near. Change your minds and believe the good news.'” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )

complete verse (Mark 1:26)

Following are a number of back-translations of Mark 1:26:

  • Uma: “That person shook/trembled because of the evil spirit, and he cried out, and the evil spirit that possessed [rode] him came out.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “So-then the man was convulsed by the demon and after the demon had screamed/shouted, he came out from the man.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And immediately the demon caused that man to have convulsions and caused him to scream loudly, and the demon came out of him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Whereupon the spirit caused-that man -to-convulse while-simultaneously he made-him -scream, and then he left him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “That person was again caused to convulse by that evil spirit who was possessing him. And then it cried out as it left his body.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Shipibo-Conibo: “Then the ruinous demon twisted him. Having twisted him, it screamed out greatly. It came out of him.” (Source: James Lauriault in The Bible Translator 1951, p. 32ff. )
  • Balinese: “The demon(s) tormented the man so that he jerked, then went out while he (or they) screamed, loudly.” (Source: J.L. Swellengrebel in The Bible Translator 1950 p. 75ff. )