eagle

The Hebrew that is translated as “eagle” in English is translated in the Burmese translation by A. Judson (first publ. in 1823, still the most widely-used translation in Myanmar) as rhve​langh​ta (ရွှေ​လင်း​တ) or “golden vulture (or: “eagle”).” While this might be a correct translation overall, the fact that vultures are disliked in Myanmar culture and they’re not considered to be a majestic bird, has some readers feel uneasy about the translation choice, especially for this verse (Isaiah 40:31). Some new translations use a different term that uses a word that specifically identifies an eagle. One revision of the Judson Bible is specifically known as the “Eagle edition” of 2006. “The editors are not known, and identified themselves only as ‘CRC.’ Basing their work on Judson’s version of the Myanmar Bible, they edited and changed many words, phrases, and sentence structures. The main concern of this edition is probably the translation of the word ‘eagle,’ thus the name ‘Eagle Edition.” (Source: Khoi Lam Thang in The Bible Translator 2009, p. 195ff.)

Anna Sui Hluan (2022, p. 257) remarks: “The fact that the authors of the revised translation remain anonymous, and that so few have questioned Judson’s translation, can be linked to Myanmar’s culture of respect. Adoniram Judson is not only respected among Christians but also by other religious groups in Myanmar, because of his contribution to the Burmese language.”

complete verse (1 Corinthians 14:33)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Corinthians 14:33:

  • Uma: “For God’s will is that our services be orderly, he doesn’t like things/people that are chaotic. That is the law that is followed in all the services of the Kristen people in every village.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “God does not want that it is troubled/noisy in our (incl.) gatherings, but he wants that we (incl.) live in harmony. And that is the custom in the gatherings of the ones trusting in Isa Almasi in all the places,” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Because God does not want you to all speak at the same time when you gather together to worship him. For what he inspires you to do is not confusion, but rather it is peaceful activity.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because what God wants/likes is not what-is-disorderly but rather what is orderly/harmonious. Women ought to be quiet when you meet-as-a-congregation as they also do in the other congregations of God’s people. It is not permitted that they speak but rather they must submit-themselves to (lit. cause-themselves-to-be-ruled-by) the men just like it is written in God’s law.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Because as for God, he does not plan/determine trouble/confusion but rather peacefulness and orderliness.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Because God does not want that all the people should be speaking at once. Do like the believers in the other cities do.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Burmese (translation by A. Judson, first publ. in 1823, still the most widely-used translation in Myanmar): “God does not nurture a work of confusion. As happened in all the churches of the saints, [He] nurtures harmonious peace.” (Source: Hluan 2022, p. 78ff. — see there also for a detailed analysis of Judson’s translation.)

complete verse (1 Corinthians 14:34)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Corinthians 14:34:

  • Uma: “So, your women/wives must be quiet in the services. They are not permitted to be talking like that, they must submit as is written in the Law of the Lord.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “the women shall be quiet while they are in the gathering. They cannot take part in the arguments with the men because the holy-book says that it is not possible for a woman to cause-herself-to-be-higher than a man.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “There’s also a command I have for you which is what the believers in every town do; it is this: don’t you permit that a woman teach when you gather together to worship. They should just listen, because the Law of the Jews teaches that women should not be in charge.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Because what God wants/likes is not what-is-disorderly but rather what is orderly/harmonious. Women ought to be quiet when you meet-as-a-congregation as they also do in the other congregations of God’s people. It is not permitted that they speak but rather they must submit-themselves to (lit. cause-themselves-to-be-ruled-by) the men just like it is written in God’s law.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Well, just as is being followed/obeyed by all the people of God, it’s necessary that the women don’t speak (lit. make a noise) for they are not allowed to speak when the-whole-group is gathered together to worship. For like what was said in the laws, they are under the jurisdiction of the man.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “That is, the women are not allowed to speak where the believers are gathered. Because the women do not have permission to explain the word to the people. Rather the men must be the leaders just like the law of God says.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Burmese (translation by A. Judson, first publ. in 1823, still the most widely-used translation in Myanmar): “The wife of yours should stay silent in the church. They have no permission to preach. As the law commanded they must consent to the ruling of man.” (Source: Hluan 2022, p. 82ff. — see there also for a detailed analysis of Judson’s translation.)

For further consideration of this and the surrounding verses, see Daniel Arichea in The Bible Translator 1995, p. 101ff.

complete verse (1 Corinthians 14:35)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Corinthians 14:35:

  • Uma: “If they want to know anything, they should ask it of their husbands at home, for it isn’t fitting if women are continually talking like that in the services.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “If they want to ask something, let them ask their husbands when they arrive at home. It is not fitting/right for a woman to speak in a gathering of the ones trusting in Isa Almasi.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “If a woman has a question, she should not ask it there in the house where they are gathered, but rather she should ask her husband when they return home; because it’s shameful activity for a woman to speak when the believers are gathered together.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “If there is that which they want to ask, they should wait until they go-home so that they will then inquire of their husbands, because it is improper if women speak when you meet-as-a-congregation.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “If they have a question, they should just ask their husbands when they get home, because if whe speaks in front of everyone who has gathered, it is a disgrace.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “If some woman has a question she wants to ask, then she should ask her husband at home. Because it does not appear well if a woman speaks there where the believers are gathered.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Burmese (translation by A. Judson, first publ. in 1823, still the most widely-used translation in Myanmar): “If women want to learn anything. let them ask their own husbands at home. It is a shameful thing for a woman to preach in the church.” (Source: Hluan 2022, p. 82ff. — see there also for a detailed analysis of Judson’s translation.)