raised from the dead

The Greek that is translated as “was raised from the dead” is translated as “rose from the dead” (Xicotepec De Juárez Totonac), “came up again from where he was buried” (Huehuetla Tepehua) or “returned from among the dead” (Ojitlán Chinantec). (Source: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.)

In Highland Totonac it is translated with “revivify,” since a literal translation could simply mean altering the position of a dead body” (source: Hermann Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. ).

See also Lord.

Father (address for God)

The Greek that is translated with the capitalized “Father” in English when referring to God is translated in Highland Totonac with the regular word for (biological) father to which a suffix is added to indicate respect. The same also is used for “Lord” when referring to Jesus. (Source: Hermann Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. )

Like a number of other East Asian languages, Japanese uses a complex system of honorifics, i.e. a system where a number of different levels of politeness are expressed in language via words, word forms or grammatical constructs. These can range from addressing someone or referring to someone with contempt (very informal) to expressing the highest level of reference (as used in addressing or referring to God) or any number of levels in-between.

In the widely-used Japanese Shinkaiyaku (新改訳) Bible of 2017, God the Father is addressed with mi-chichi (御父). This form has the “divine” honorific prefix mi– preceding the archaic honorific form chichi for “father.”

If, however, Jesus addresses his Father, he is using chichi-o (父を) which is also highly respectful but does not have the “divine” honorific.

(Source: S. E. Doi, see also S. E. Doi in Journal of Translation, 18/2022, p. 37ff. )

See also Lord.

saint

The Greek that is translated as “saint” in English is rendered into Highland Puebla Nahuatl as “one with a clean hearts,” into Northwestern Dinka as “one with a white hearts,” and into Western Kanjobal as “person of prayer.” (Source: Nida 1952, p. 146)

Other translations include:

complete verse (2 Corinthians 1:11)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Corinthians 1:11:

  • Uma: “And you also, relatives, must hold-us (excl.)-up with your prayers. For if many people pray for us (excl.), God will bless us (excl.), with the result that many people will say thank you to God.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “And you can also help us (excl.) if you pray/request to God for us (excl.). If many of you pray/request to God for us (excl.) and when God gives what you ask, then many will give thanks to him because of his help to us (excl.).” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “And it’s necessary that you also help us by praying, and then it will be possible that many will give thanks to God because of His favor toward us, because of the praying of many people.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “provided you help with your prayers. And if you do that, God will answer your many prayers and will bless us (excl.), and many will give-thanks to him.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “But we (excl.) are asking that you will also continue your help to us in prayer. For if many are praying, after the answers, of course many will then praise and thank God because of his help to us.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “But it is necessary that you help me now by praying to God for me. If many people pray to God for me, then many people will thank God when they see how God blesses me.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Highland Totonac: “Help me with your prayers in order that thus many will give thanks to God because of the mercies which he would show toward us because of many.” (Source: Herman Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. )

complete verse (2 Corinthians 1:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Corinthians 1:1:

  • Uma: “This letter is from me Paulus, whom God lifted to be an apostle/messenger of Kristus Yesus according to his desire, and from Timotius, our (incl.) one-faith relative, we (excl.) send it to you relatives who believe in God who are in the village of Korintus, including [lit., until] all the Kristen people in the province of Akhaya.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “This letter is from me, Paul and from Timoteo our (incl.) brother. From the will of God I was commissioned by Isa Almasi, commanded to proclaim his message. I send this letter there to the gathering belonging to God there in the town of Korinto and also (lit. including) to all of God’s people throughout the place of Akaya.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “I am Paul; I was given the title of an apostle by Jesus Christ because God wanted it. I and Timothy, our (incl.) brother, we write to all of you believers in God there in the town of Corinth, and also all of the people who belong to God within the province of Achaiya.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “I am Pablo who am an apostle of Cristo Jesus according to what God wants. My companion here is our brother Timoteo. Here is our (excl.) letter to you who are God’s people in Corinto and in-addition all his people in the province Akaya.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Corinthians (lit. those in/from Corinto) who are trusting and believing/obeying God, and others whom God has separated-out to be his people now there in the whole province of Acaya, there-with-you is our (excl.) letter, I Pablo who is an apostle of Cristo Jesus according to the determined-plan of God, and Timoteo who is our sibling in believing.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “I am Paul, whom God appointed to be Jesus Christ’s representative. I, with our brother Timothy, greet God’s people who gather there in the city of Corinth, and also those other people who are in God’s hand, who live in the places in the land of Acaya.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Highland Totonac: “I Paul am the one who is writing this, Jesus’ sent one, because that is God’s will. Then too, there is our brother Timothy, we send you this message, you who gather together at Corinth, as well as all those who are God’s chosen who live throughout the whole of Achaia.” (Source: Herman Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. )

complete verse (2 Corinthians 1:2)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Corinthians 1:2:

  • Uma: “Many greetings: we (excl.) call-out to God our Father and the Lord Yesus Kristus, that he bless you from his white insides [grace] and give you goodness of life [i.e., well-being, peace].” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “May our (incl.) Father God and our (incl.) Leader Isa Almasi always care for you. May they always cause peace in your livers.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “May God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ show you favor and bless you with a peaceful situation.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “May you have mercy/grace and peace that comes-from God our Father and the Lord Jesu Cristo.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “We (excl.) are praying that hopefully with you always is the grace/mercy and peace of mind/inner-being that God who is our Father and the Lord Jesu-Cristo give.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “We want that God our Father with our Lord Jesus Christ will bless you and will put peace in your hearts.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Highland Totonac: “May God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you and comfort you.” (Source: Herman Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. )

complete verse (2 Corinthians 1:3)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Corinthians 1:3:

  • Uma: “Let us praise God the Father of our Lord Yesus Kristus! For he is our Father whose love is big, he is God who strengthens our hearts.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “We (incl.) thank God, he is the Father of our (incl.) Leader Isa Almasi because he is really merciful/kind and he is really always-ready-to-help.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Let us (incl.) praise God who is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. He is our merciful father, and the origin of any kind of help for us (incl.).” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Let us praise God who is the God and Father of Jesu Cristo our Lord, for he is our merciful/gracious Father who is the source of all help and comfort.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Hopefully we are always praising and thanking God, he who is the Father of our Lord Jesu-Cristo. And he is our Father also who is exceedingly gracious/merciful and the source of far-from-ordinary comfort (lit. that-which-can-make-happy) of the mind/inner-being.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Concerning God, who is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, let us thank him. God, our Father, pities us and he comforts our hearts.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Highland Totonac: “Blessed be God and the father of the Lord Jesus Christ, the type of father who is merciful, and the type of God who comforts.” (Source: Herman Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. )

complete verse (2 Corinthians 1:4)

Following are a number of back-translations of 2 Corinthians 1:4:

  • Uma: “He strengthens our (excl.) hearts in all kinds of difficulties that hit us (excl.), so that with the strength that we (excl.) receive from him, we (excl.) strengthen the hearts of others who are in difficulties of whatever kind.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Whatever our (excl.) trouble is he encourages us (excl.) so that we (excl.) also know how to encourage our (excl.) companions when they are in all kinds of troubles. We (excl.) can help them because we (excl.) have already experienced help from God.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “He helps us (incl.) in all of our (incl.) troubles and because of this, we (incl.) can help other people who have any kind of trouble. The help that we (incl.) give, it is just the same as that which God helped us (incl.).” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “He comforts us in all our hardships/sufferings so that we will also know-how to comfort our companions when they have whatever-kind of hardship and we will be able-to-help-them -with that same help of God to us.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He really does not leave us alone in our hardships, but rather he comforts (lit. causes-to-be-happy) our mind/inner-being, so that we also can cause-to-be-happy whoever has hardship. For whatever God gives us by-which-to comfort our mind/inner-being, that is indeed what we can give our companions who are being hardshipped.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Each time we suffer, it is God who comforts our hearts. But he wants that we also will comfort the hearts of our fellow men when we see them suffer. Let us do to our fellow men just like God does to us, in that he comforts our hearts.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Highland Totonac: “He is the one who comforts us as we are in trouble, so that we too may comfort others who are found in whatever trouble the same comfort with which God has comforted us.” (Source: Herman Aschmann in The Bible Translator 1950, p. 171ff. )