earthly sanctuary

The Greek that is translated as “earthly sanctuary” or similar in English is translated by the interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) as malo opembedzeramo omangidwa ndi anthu or “a place for worshiping in made by people.” (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 110)

evil brings death to the wicked

The phrase that is rendered in English versions as “Evil brings death to the wicked” or similar is translated into the interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) with the existing proverb choipa chitsata mwini or “evil follows its owner.” (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 96)

tablets of the covenant

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “tablets of the covenant” or similar in English is translated by the interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) as miyala iŵiri ija yolembedwapo mau a chipangano or “those two stones on which are written the words of the agreement.” (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 110)

See also 10 commandments on stone tablets (image).

Rahab

The Hebrew that is translated in English as “Rahab” is translated in the interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) as chilombo cha m’nyanja or “beast of the sea.” (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 96)

horn of salvation, mighty savior

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated literally as “horn of salvation” and more idiomatically as “mighty savior” in some English versions is translated along those lines in many languages as well. In Uab Meto, however the term for “horn” is also used metaphorically for “hero” and in Balinese the term for “tusk,” which suggests “champion/hero” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel).

In Uma, it is translated as “a powerful War chief who brings salvation” and in Una as “a very powerful Person to us who will rescue people” (source: Dick Kroneman).

In Chichewa (interconfessional translation, 1999) it is translated as “our mighty Saviour.” Ernst Wendland (1998, p. 155f.) explains: “A literal rendering of the Greek ‘horn of salvation’ causes real problems in Chichewa due to the strong association that an animal ‘horn’ has with the local practice of sorcery (e.g. a ‘sorcerer’ is referred to as wanyanga ‘person of a horn’). Since the horn was a symbol of strength in biblical times, [we] translatedr this metonym as ‘our mighty Saviour.'”

mercy seat

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “mercy seat” or similar in English is translated by the interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) as or “the cover of that box which was the place for forgiving sins upon.” (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 110)

seal of my apostleship

The Greek that is translated in English as “seal of my apostleship” or similar is translated in the interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) as “a testimony that I indeed am an apostle.” (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 96)

bread of the presence, consecrated bread, showbread

The Greek and Hebrew that is translated as “showbread,” “bread of the presence,” or “consecrated bread” in English is translated as “bread set before the face of God” (Luvale), “loaves which are laid before the face (of God)” (Toraja-Sa’dan) (source for this and above: Bratcher / Nida), “bread to-do-homage” (Tae’), “holy bread” (Pohnpeian, Chuukese), “placed bread” (Ekari), “church-bread” (Sranan Tongo) (source for this and three above: Reiling / Swellengrebel), and mikate yoperekedwa kwa Mulungu or “loaves offered to God” (interconfessional Chichewa translation; source: Wendland 1998, p. 110).

complete verses (Numbers 6:24-26)

Following is a back-translation of Numbers 6:24-26 in the Chichewa (interconfessional translation, 1999):

“May Chauta [see tetragrammaton (YHWH)] bless you [pl.], and may he keep you.
May Chauta look upon you in love, and may he favour you [in his] heart.
May Chauta look upon you in mercy, and may he give you peace.”

(Source: Wendland 1998, p. 147f.)

keep peace, quiet, silent

The Hebrew that is translated “silent,” “quiet,” or “keep peace” or similar in English is emphasized in the interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) with the ideophone phee. (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 105)

Philip Noss (in The Bible Translator 1976, p. 100ff. ) explains the function of an ideophone: “The ideophone may be identified with onomatopoeia and other sound words frequently seen in French and English comic strips, but in [many] African languages it comprises a class of words with a very wide range of meaning and usage. They may function verbally, substantively, or in a modifying role similar to adverbs and adjectives. They describe anything that may be experienced: action, sound, color, quality, smell, or emotion. In oral literature they are used not only with great frequency but also with great creativity.”

complete verses (Psalm 23)

Following is a back-translation of Psalm 23 in the Chichewa (interconfessional translation, 1999):

Chauta [see tetragrammaton (YHWH)] he is my herdsman,
I will surely not lack a [little] thing, not at all.
He lays me down on a pasture of new grass.
He guides me to still waters to go and rest there.
He revives my life-force.
He leads me in a righteous path in accordance with the glory of his name.
It may be that I walk in a ravine of black darkness,
but I will not fear any kind of evil,
for You Lord you stay with me.
Your warclub and walking stick protect me.
You prepare food for me, as my enemies look on.
You welcome me well by anointing my head with oil,
you fill my cup to overflowing.
Truly, your good things and your love
will stay with me all the days of my life.
I will live in your House my whole life long.

(Source: Wendland 1998, p. 148f.)

calamities

The interconfessional Chichewa translation (publ. 1999) uses the ideophone phu (“poof”) to emphasize calamities like death or exposure in these verses. (Source: Wendland 1998, p. 105)

Philip Noss (in The Bible Translator 1976, p. 100ff. ) explains the function of an ideophone: “The ideophone may be identified with onomatopoeia and other sound words frequently seen in French and English comic strips, but in [many] African languages it comprises a class of words with a very wide range of meaning and usage. They may function verbally, substantively, or in a modifying role similar to adverbs and adjectives. They describe anything that may be experienced: action, sound, color, quality, smell, or emotion. In oral literature they are used not only with great frequency but also with great creativity.”