justice

The Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic and Latin that is translated as “justice” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a sign that describes the quality or principle of fairness, righteousness, and impartiality in treating other people. A literal back-translation of the signs are “FOLLOW(God is implied) ACTIONS, DECISIONS JUST-RIGHT”. A more idiomatic back-translation would be: “actions and decisions are right/fitting/just in accordance to God’s will.” The movement in the signs itself helps to indicate that this is a noun, not a verb. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Justice” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

Hagar

The term that is transliterated as “Hagar” in English is translated in American Sign Language with the sign for the letter H and “escaped,” referring to Genesis 21:14. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Hagar” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

In Spanish Sign Language it is translated with a sign that combines “Egypt” and “servant,” referring to the fact that Hagar was a slave from Egypt (see Genesis 16:1). (Source: Steve Parkhurst)


“Hagar” in Spanish Sign Language, source: Sociedad Bíblica de España

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Hagar and Hagar from an Egyptian Christian Perspective .

Timothy

The term that is transliterated as “Timothy” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a sign that combines the signs for the letter T and “young,” referring to 1 Timothy 4:12 et al. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Timothy” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

In Spanish Sign Language it is translated with the sign for “sent,” referring to the many times Timothy was sent to different places (Acts 19:22, 1 Corinthians 4:17, Philippians 2:19, 1 Thessalonians 3:2). Source: Steve Parkhurst)


“Timothy” in Spanish Sign Language, source: Sociedad Bíblica de España

creation

The Greek, and Latin that is translated as “creation” in English is translated in Lisu as ꓟꓵ ꓚꓰꓼ ꓟꓲ ꓚꓰꓼ — my tshe mi tshe, verbatim translated as “place — make — earth — make.” This construction follows a traditional four-couplet construct in oral Lisu poetry that is usually in the form ABAC or ABCB. (Source: Arrington 2020, p. 58)

In American Sign Language it is translated with a sign that signifies creating out of nothing. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Creation” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

Goliath

The term that is transliterated as “Goliath” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a finger pointing to the forehead (a reference to where the stone hit him) followed by the sign for “tall” referring to 1 Samuel 17:49 and 1 Samuel 17:4. (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Goliath” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

See also Zacchaeus.

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Goliath .

ark of the covenant

The Hebrew, Greek, and Latin that is sometimes translated as “ark of the covenant” in English (other English options: “pact chest” [translation by John Goldingay, 2018] or “Coffer of the Covenant” [translation by Everett Fox, 1995]) is translated in various ways:

  • Mairasi: Anasi Farjora or “Covenant Place” (source: Enggavoter 2004)
  • Uma: “Promise Box” (source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Covenant Chest” (source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Chest of the Agreement” (source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Chest of the Initiated-agreement” (source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Danish Bibelen 2020: kisten med den hellige aftale or “chest with the holy agreement” (source: Ehrensvärd in HIPHIL Novum 8/2023, p. 81ff. )

Following is reverse applique stitching (“mola”) by an unknown Guna artist depicting the ark:

Source: Sacred Art Pilgrim website .

In American Sign Language it is translated with a sign that combines “box” and the wings of the cherubim on top of the ark (see Exod 25:18 and following). (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Ark of the covenant” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

See also cherub and tabernacle (noun).

Hannah

The term that is transliterated as “Hannah” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a modification of the sign for “grace,” referring to the original meaning of the name “Hannah.” (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Hannah” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor

See also Anna.

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Hannah .

Potiphar

The term that is transliterated as “Potiphar” in English is translated in American Sign Language with a sign that signifies the letter “P” and “boss.” (Source: RuthAnna Spooner, Ron Lawer)


“Potiphar” in American Sign Language, source: Deaf Harbor