prophesy, prophetic frenzy

The Falam Chin term word for the term that is translated as “prophesy” or “prophetic frenzy” here in English implies “murmuring” which is an important part of pagan medium contact in the culture.

See also prophet, prophesy (verb) and prophesy.

implanted, in one's heart

For the phrase that is translated as “implanted (word)” or “(word that he plants) in your hearts” in English versions, Kahua uses a term for belly/chest as the seat of the emotions. (Source: David Clark)

In Owa it is translated as “planted in your soul” (=hearts). (Source: Carl Gross)

See also heart, soul, mind.


The Greek phrase that is (awkwardly) rendered as “people were marrying and being given in marriage” in some English versions (Good News Translation: “men and women married”) is rendered more straight-forwardly in Chechen and Khakas which uses different words for “marry” for men and women.


The Greek that is translated into English as “crucify” is translated into Naro with xgàu which literally means “to stretch” as is done with a skin after slaughtering in order to dry it. The word is also widely accepted in the churches. (Source: Gerrit van Steenbergen)

Similarly, Balinese and Toraja-Sa’dan also translate as “stretch him.” (Source: Reiling / Swellengrebel)

In Ghari it becomes “hammer to the cross” (source: David Clark), in Loma “fasten him to a spread-back-stick” (source: Bratcher / Nida), in Sundanese “hang him on a crossbeam” (source: Reiling / Swellengrebel), in Aguaruna “fasten him to the tree,” in Navajo “nail him to the cross”, in Yatzachi Zapotec “fasten him to the cross” (source for this and two above (source for this and above: M. Larson / B. Moore in Notes on Translation February 1970, p. 1-125.), and in Apali the different aspects of the crucifixion have to be spelled out: “nail to a tree piece put cross-wise, lift up to stand upright (for the crucified person) to die (and in some contexts: to die and rise again)” (source: Martha Wade).

See also cross.

kick against the goads

The Greek proverb which is translated directly by some English versions as “kick against the goads (=a spiked stick used for driving cattle)” and refers to “pointless fighting” became “throw chaff into the wind” in the Khmer Standard Version translation of 2005 (vs. the also considered “spit vertically upwards”).