a generous person will be enriched - and one who gives water will get water

The Hebrew that is translated as “a generous person will be enriched, and one who gives water will get water” or similar in English is translated very differently in three different forms of Dinka:

  • Southeastern Dinka (Dinka Cam): “The person who has a heart and gives to other people generously is generously given to.”
  • Southwestern Dinka (Dinka Rek): “It is the gift which is the wealth and if you are a giver, then you will be given.”
  • Northeastern Dinka (Dinka Padang): “The person who gives, prospers, for the bowl goes and the bowl comes.” (Here a local proverb “The bowl goes, and the bowl comes” was used, meaning “The person who gives food (in a bowl), will in turn receive food when he is in need.”)

Source: Jacobus Naudé / Cynthia Miller-Naudé in Noss / Houser 2019, p. 293)


The name that is transliterated as “Abraham” in English is translated in virtually all sign languages, including American Sign Language with the sign signifying “hold back arm” (referring to Genesis 22:12).

“Abraham” in American Sign Language (source )

In Tira it is transliterated as Abaram. The choice of this, rather than the widely-known “Ibrahim,” as used in the Tira translation of the Qu’ran, was to offset it against the Muslim transliteration which originates from Arabic. (Source: J.A. Naudé, C.L. Miller Naudé, J.O. Obono in Acta Theologica 43/2, 2023, p. 129ff. )

Click or tap here to see two short video clips about Abraham (source: Bible Lands 2012)

See also our ancestor Abraham and Abram.

Learn more on Bible Odyssey: Abraham .