our glory

The Greek that is translated in English as “our glory” is translated in Angal Heneng as “for the purpose of making us good (moral and spiritual).”


The Hebrew that is translated as “midwife” in English is translated in Kwere as “old woman.” (Pioneer Bible Translators, project-specific translation notes in Paratext)

In the Thai Common Language version it is “a woman who helps the womb.” (See Translation commentary on Exod 1:15.)

Apollos watered

In the Kilivila culture nobody waters plants, so in the Kilivila translation the Greek that is translated into English as “Apollos watered” is rendered as “Apollos erected the yam-stake.” (Source: David Clark)

The translators into Angal Heneng solved that same problem by translating this as “pulled the weeds.” (Source: Consultant Notes)


The Greek that is translated as “foundation” in English is translated in Kosena as “cement ridge pole.” (“The initial translation was ‘place where they build a house.’ With this translation it was difficult to grasp the idea of Christ being the foundation, since culturally, a place to build, is not part of house. Center pole is: (1) first thing they put up, (2) everything fastens onto and is supported by it, (3) is part of house, (4) is the well-known traditional way of building. ‘Cement ridge pole’ was the preferred metaphor.”) (Source: Consultant Notes.)

See also cornerstone and foundation on rock.

complete verse (1 Corinthians 1:28)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Corinthians 1:28:

  • Ono: “Where does God choose people from to be his belonging? He does it like this. The people the ground people say are nothing, exactly those people God chooses for his belonging — it’s those down and nothing people he chooses to be his belonging and appoints them. In that way there he causes the great thinking of people of the ground to go down and become lost.” (Source: Consultant Notes)
  • Uma: “He chose those who are humble [lit., whose lives are low], those who are disparaged and who have no use in the sight of mankind, in order that it would be clear that all that mankind praises has no use.” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “God chose the ones that are despised/put-down by people in the world, the ones they mock, those they say have no use, so that the people will know that whatever they consider valuable, as for God it has no value.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “God also chose the people who are made fun of by the people here on the earth. What He chose were those whom people said do not know anything and they are of no value. The reason He chose people like this is so that He might make it known that anything that people think is of great value, has no value to Him.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Those also whom people consider low (i.e. in status) and looked-down-on and of-no-account, those are the ones God has chosen in order to show that what people consider-important is come-to-find-out of no importance.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “He really chose those who are being regarded as unappealing and worthless here in this world, in order that those who are regarded as praiseworthy here in this world will come to be regarded as of no account.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “God chose the people who are said to be not straight here on earth., almost ignored, in order to rebuke the word of those who say they have authority.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)

complete verse (1 Corinthians 3:21)

Following are a number of back-translations of 1 Corinthians 3:21:

  • Uma: “So, that’s why I request, relatives: let no-one any longer boast/brag about their following mankind. Because all that you need, God has already given you as your own:” (Source: Uma Back Translation)
  • Yakan: “Therefore none of you should boast that you are an adherent/disciple of whatever man/human. Everything is given to you by God for your good.” (Source: Yakan Back Translation)
  • Western Bukidnon Manobo: “Therefore, it’s necessary that none of you boast, saying that he is the follower of a certain person. Because as for all of us who teach, God has given us to you so that you might be better off.” (Source: Western Bukidnon Manobo Back Translation)
  • Kankanaey: “Therefore you should not boast-about mere people, because everything that exists belongs to you.” (Source: Kankanaey Back Translation)
  • Tagbanwa: “Therefore don’t elevate people and side with them. For, as for all things, they have been given to you for the benefit of you all.” (Source: Tagbanwa Back Translation)
  • Tenango Otomi: “Therefore now, do not elevate people in that you say they are wise people whom you choose to follow. Because all of the teachers and all that there is on earth are all what God determined to exist in order to do good for you.” (Source: Tenango Otomi Back Translation)
  • Mapos Buang: “Therefore do not divide yourselves and become exuberant about individual people who have become leaders and look after you, because leaders and everything have become your possession.”(Source: Consultant Notes)