complete verse (Ruth 4:13)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ruth 4:13:

  • Noongar: “So, Boaz took Ruth and Ruth became his wife. They lay together and God blessed Ruth. She became pregnant and bore their son.” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)
  • Eastern Bru: “Then Boaz took Ruth to be his wife. They lived together. And God gave Ruth a son.” (Source: Bru Back Translation)
  • Hiligaynon: “So Boaz married Ruth, and the LORD willed that Ruth became-pregnant. Some time-later Ruth gave-birth to a son.” (Source: Hiligaynon Back Translation)
  • English: “So Boaz took Ruth home, and she became his wife. He slept with/had sexual relations with her and Yahweh enabled her to become pregnant, and she gave birth to a son.” (Source: Translation for Translators)

determined (Ruth 1:18)

The Hebrew that is translated as “determined” or similar in English is translated in Noongar as kaat-mardeyin or “head strong.” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)

Lord's Prayer

The Lord’s Prayer was translated into Nyulnyul (and back-translated into English) by the German missionary Hermann Nekes in 1939.

It reads:

Our Father on top sky.
Thy name be feared.
Thou art our boss.
Men-women will listen to Thee this place earth
as the good souls of men-women listen to Thee on top sky.
Give us tucker till this sun goes down.
We did wrong; make us good.
We have good hearts to them who did us wrong.
Watch us against bad place.
Thy hands be stretched out to guard us from bad.

The following is a back-translation from Noongar:

Our Father, high in your Holy Place,
your name is holy.
Let the day come
when you reign as King in our land.
We want you to become Boss of our land,
the same way you are Boss of your Holy Land.
Give us the food we eat every day.
Forgive our wrong-doing
the same way we forgive the wrong-doing people do to us.
And do not take us to the hard place of testing.
But hold us so the Devil cannot get us.
You hold the land.
You hold the power.
You hold the light.
For ever and for ever.

Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020
The following is a version of the Lord’s Prayer set to Tibetan music:

Source: gSungrab website

See also this commentary on the Lord’s Payer in Tibetan and English from the same website .

complete verse (Ruth 2:1)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ruth 2:1:

  • Noongar: “Now, a relative of Naomi, he was named Boaz. He was a relative of Naomi’s husband, famous in the tribe of Elimelech.” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)
  • Eastern Bru: “Naomi had a person from the clan of her husband Elimelech. That person was named Boaz, and he was a person who had great authority, and he was also rich.” (Source: Bru Back Translation)
  • Hiligaynon: (verses 1-3) “One day, Ruth said to Noemi, ‘Allow me to go to the field to glean the heads-of-grain of a man who will-allow me to do it.’ Noemi said to her, ‘Okay child, you(sg) go.’ So Ruth went-out and gleaned the heads-of-grain that were-left-behind by the harvesters. And it-so-happened that she gleaned there at the field of Boaz the relative of Elimelec. Boaz was a wealthy and famous man.” (Source: Hiligaynon Back Translation)
  • English: “There was a man in Bethlehem who belonged to the clan of Naomi’s dead husband, Elimelech. He was rich and well-known/influential. His name was Boaz.” (Source: Translation for Translators)

bitter, Mara

The Hebrew name Mara means “bitter” which is here used as a designator for the state Naomi finds herself in (translated in English: “call me Mara, for the Almighty has dealt bitterly with me.” or similar). “However not all languages use the word for ‘bitter’ to describe things like lives, or feelings. In Poqomchi’ we had to translate this as ‘sadness,’ because ‘bitter’ would have meant nothing in this context, and the proposed name change would have been as meaningless as if left unexplained.” (Source: Ronald Ross)

In Noongar the word for “bitter” is djadam which also means “sour.” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)

complete verse (Ruth 2:2 - 2:5)

Following are a number of back-translations of Ruth 2:2-2:5:

  • Noongar: “Ruth of Moab said to Naomi, ‘Let me go to the wheat-field and gather seed. I can go behind people who are kind to me.’ Naomi said to her, ‘Go, my daughter.’ So Ruth went to the wheat-fields and gathered wheat behind the wheat workers. Now, Boaz owned this wheat-field. He was Elimelech’s relative. Just then, Boaz arrived from Bethlehem. He said to the wheat workers, ‘God stays with you!’. They replied, ‘God bless you!’ Then Boaz asked the boss of the wheat workers, ‘This woman, who are her people?’” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)
  • Eastern Bru: “Ruth, the Moabite, said to Naomi: ‘Let me go glean in the fields. If the owner of the field is pleased with me, then I will glean in that field..’ And Naomi answered: ‘All right, child. Go, go.’ So Ruth went to glean in the fields following those who were harvesting. She did not know she had come to the field of Boaz. Boaz was from the clan of Elimelech. So Boaz came from Bethlehem, and he said to his harvesters: ‘God be with you.’ They answered: ‘Yes. And God give to you blessings also.’ Then Boaz asked the person who oversaw the people who harvested for him: ‘That young woman is whose child?’ (Source: Bru Back Translation)
  • Hiligaynon: (verses 4-5) “Now, Boaz arrived from Betlehem and he greeted the harvesters, ‘May the LORD help you(pl)!’ The harvesters replied, ‘May the LORD bless you(sg)!’ Then Boaz asked the servant whom he entrusted to supervise the harvesters, ‘Who is that young lady/woman?’” (Source: Hiligaynon Back Translation)
  • English: “One day Ruth said to Naomi, ‘Let me go to the fields and pick up the grain left behind by the workers.’ Naomi replied, ‘Go ahead, my daughter.’ So Ruth went to the fields and began to pick up some of the left-over grain. And it happened that she was working in a field that belonged to Boaz, the man from the clan of her dead father-in-law, Elimelech! Just then, Boaz arrived from Bethlehem. He greeted the men who were harvesting the grain, saying, ‘I want Yahweh to bless you!’ They replied, ‘We want Yahweh to bless you, too!’ Then Boaz saw Ruth, and asked the foreman/man in charge of the other workmen, ‘Whose daughter is that young woman?’” (Source: Translation for Translators)


The Greek, Latin and Hebrew that is translated in English as “painful” or “sorrow” is translated in Huba as “cut the insides.” David Frank explains: “Huba has just one expression that covers both ‘angry’ and ‘sad.’ They don’t make a distinction in their language. I suppose you could say that the term they use means more generically, ‘strong emotional reaction.’ (Source: David Frank in this blog post )

In Noongar it is translated as koort-warra or “heart bad.” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)

In Enlhet it is translated as “going aside of the innermost.” “Innermost” or valhoc is a term that is frequently used in Enlhet to describe a large variety of emotions or states of mind (for other examples see here). (Source: Jacob Loewen in The Bible Translator 1969, p. 24ff. )

See also grieving / sorrowful.

sandal / shoe

The Hebrew and Greek that is translated as “sandal” or “shoe” similar in English is translated in Noongar as djena-bwoka or “feet kangaroo skin.” (Source: Bardip Ruth-Ang 2020)

See also cloth.