the one whom they have pierced

The Hebrew that is translated as “the one whom they have pierced” in English is translated into Tibetan with a honorific for “the one” or “him,” with a view to allowing for the quotation in John 19:37 (In the English New Revised Standard Version: “And again another passage of scripture says, ‘They will look on the one whom they have pierced.'”).

come out of nostrils

The phrase that is translated by some English versions “comes out of your nostrils” is rendered in Tibetan as “till you are sick with it and cannot bear the smell.”

son vs. grandson

“Son of x, son of y” must be rendered as “son of x and grandson of y” in Tibetan or else it will sound like two different people.

Note: The same translation solution is chosen in many contemporary English Bibles that emphasize easy readability, such as the Contemporary English Version, Common English Bible, Good News Translation, God’s Word, or New Living Translation.

See also father / grandfather.

touch scepter

Where English versions tend to translate “touched the top of the scepter” (and the reader assumes that Esther touched the scepter with her hand), Tibetan says she touched it with her head, which is more respectful in that culture.


Tibetan has no generic term for “cousin,” so “daughter/son of his/her uncle” is used.