redeemer

Th Hebrew that is translated as “redeemer in English is translated the following way in these languages:

While in Tonga, an early version by J.E. Moulton (1902) used a phonetic transcription — “Koeli” — (Job 19.25 Moulton Version) the West version (1884, 2014) uses huhu’i. This “word, meaning ‘Redeemer,’ is made up of two components: Hu meaning “to enter,” hu’i meaning “to free.” It is thus understood as someone who enters, intervenes in order to set free. (Source: Joseph Hong in The Bible Translator 1994, p. 329ff.)

In Tai Dam the translation is “Lord-come-seek-buy.” “This is the Lord who came and sought us, and then bought us for Himself. Just “to buy a person” might imply acquiring a personal slave. But one comes seeking in order to buy is one who is earnestly looking for the straying sheep who is lost in the mountainside in his own sinful wandering away form the Shepherd of his soul.” (Source: Nida 1952, p. 139.)

In Luba-Katanga it is “Mukuji”: “Kinsman Redeemer.” Kilgour (1939, p. 95f.) tells this story: “John A. Clarke translated the Gospels and Acts and has this illustration: ‘one day a boy bleeding from cruelty arrived at the mission. Mr Clarke offered to ‘redeem’ him from his master. But the lad cried out, ‘You are not able to redeem me, for you are no relation of mine: only my parents or one of my relations can ‘redeem’ me. You may buy me, but I would be your slave: only a relation can ‘redeem’ me.’ As the translator adds, ‘the Son of God became one with us so that He might be our Redeemer’. Mukuji is the Katanga term; it means ‘Kinsman Redeemer.’”

reconcile, reconciliation

The Greek terms that are translated as “reconcile” and “reconciliation” in English are translated in various ways. Nida (1952, pp. 140) says this:

“The Inupiaq describe reconciliation in the simple terms of ‘making friends again.’ That is to say, ‘God was in Christ making friends again with the world.’ The Uduk in the Sudan express this same truth, but in the rather interesting phrase ‘meet, snapping fingers together again.’ This expression is derived from the Uduk’s practice of snapping fingers together when they meet each other. Instead of shaking hands, they extend their thumbs and middle fingers and snap fingers together, but only friends will do this. Men who have something against each other refuse to acknowledge each other in this way. And so it is that the natural man is an enemy of God; he refuses to snap fingers with God, but God has come to reconcile man to Himself and through Jesus Christ has brought man into fellowship with Himself. Man and God may now meet ‘to snap fingers together again.’

“The Tai Dam of Indo-China employ quite a different figure of speech. They say that reconciliation consists in ‘rubbing off the corners.’ This does not refer to social acceptability, but to rubbing off the corners so that two objects, meant for each other, will fit together. Man is regarded as being incapable of fitting into the plan and fellowship of God because of the sin which has deformed him and which stands out as an ugly growth on his personality. The corners of iniquity must be rubbed off so that man may be reconciled to God and made to fit into God’s eternal plan for the world.”

hypocrite

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The Greek and Hebrew terms that are translated as “hypocrite” in English typically have a counterpart in most languages. According to Bratcher / Nida (1961, p. 225), they can be categorized into the following categories:

  • those which employ some concept of “two” or “double”
  • those which make use of some expression of “mouth” or “speaking”
  • those which are based upon some special cultural feature
  • those which employ a non-metaphorical phrase

Following is a list of (back-) translations from some languages:

See also hypocrisy.